blockchain - in bitcoin core, how to use Tor for ...

Putting $400M of Bitcoin on your company balance sheet

Also posted on my blog as usual. Read it there if you can, there are footnotes and inlined plots.
A couple of months ago, MicroStrategy (MSTR) had a spare $400M of cash which it decided to shift to Bitcoin (BTC).
Today we'll discuss in excrutiating detail why this is not a good idea.
When a company has a pile of spare money it doesn't know what to do with, it'll normally do buybacks or start paying dividends. That gives the money back to the shareholders, and from an economic perspective the money can get better invested in other more promising companies. If you have a huge pile of of cash, you probably should be doing other things than leave it in a bank account to gather dust.
However, this statement from MicroStrategy CEO Michael Saylor exists to make it clear he's buying into BTC for all the wrong reasons:
“This is not a speculation, nor is it a hedge. This was a deliberate corporate strategy to adopt a bitcoin standard.”
Let's unpack it and jump into the economics Bitcoin:

Is Bitcoin money?

No.
Or rather BTC doesn't act as money and there's no serious future path for BTC to become a form of money. Let's go back to basics. There are 3 main economic problems money solves:
1. Medium of Exchange. Before money we had to barter, which led to the double coincidence of wants problem. When everyone accepts the same money you can buy something from someone even if they don't like the stuff you own.
As a medium of exchange, BTC is not good. There are significant transaction fees and transaction waiting times built-in to BTC and these worsen the more popular BTC get.
You can test BTC's usefulness as a medium of exchange for yourself right now: try to order a pizza or to buy a random item with BTC. How many additional hurdles do you have to go through? How many fewer options do you have than if you used a regular currency? How much overhead (time, fees) is there?
2. Unit of Account. A unit of account is what you compare the value of objects against. We denominate BTC in terms of how many USD they're worth, so BTC is a unit of account presently. We can say it's because of lack of adoption, but really it's also because the market value of BTC is so volatile.
If I buy a $1000 table today or in 2017, it's roughly a $1000 table. We can't say that a 0.4BTC table was a 0.4BTC table in 2017. We'll expand on this in the next point:
3. Store of Value. When you create economic value, you don't want to be forced to use up the value you created right away.
For instance, if I fix your washing machine and you pay me in avocados, I'd be annoyed. I'd have to consume my payment before it becomes brown, squishy and disgusting. Avocado fruit is not good money because avocadoes loses value very fast.
On the other hand, well-run currencies like the USD, GBP, CAD, EUR, etc. all lose their value at a low and most importantly fairly predictible rate. Let's look at the chart of the USD against BTC
While the dollar loses value at a predictible rate, BTC is all over the place, which is bad.
One important use money is to write loan contracts. Loans are great. They let people spend now against their future potential earnings, so they can buy houses or start businesses without first saving up for a decade. Loans are good for the economy.
If you want to sign something that says "I owe you this much for that much time" then you need to be able to roughly predict the value of the debt in at the point in time where it's due.
Otherwise you'll have a hard time pricing the risk of the loan effectively. This means that you need to charge higher interests. The risk of making a loan in BTC needs to be priced into the interest of a BTC-denominated loan, which means much higher interest rates. High interests on loans are bad, because buying houses and starting businesses are good things.

BTC has a fixed supply, so these problems are built in

Some people think that going back to a standard where our money was denominated by a stock of gold (the Gold Standard) would solve economic problems. This is nonsense.
Having control over supply of your currency is a good thing, as long as it's well run.
See here
Remember that what is desirable is low variance in the value, not the value itself. When there are wild fluctuations in value, it's hard for money to do its job well.
Since the 1970s, the USD has been a fiat money with no intrinsic value. This means we control the supply of money.
Let's look at a classic poorly drawn econ101 graph
The market price for USD is where supply meets demand. The problem with a currency based on an item whose supply is fixed is that the price will necessarily fluctuate in response to changes in demand.
Imagine, if you will, that a pandemic strikes and that the demand for currency takes a sharp drop. The US imports less, people don't buy anything anymore, etc. If you can't print money, you get deflation, which is worsens everything. On the other hand, if you can make the money printers go brrrr you can stabilize the price
Having your currency be based on a fixed supply isn't just bad because in/deflation is hard to control.
It's also a national security risk...
The story of the guy who crashed gold prices in North Africa
In the 1200s, Mansa Munsa, the emperor of the Mali, was rich and a devout Muslim and wanted everyone to know it. So he embarked on a pilgrimage to make it rain all the way to Mecca.
He in fact made it rain so hard he increased the overall supply of gold and unintentionally crashed gold prices in Cairo by 20%, wreaking an economic havoc in North Africa that lasted a decade.
This story is fun, the larger point that having your inflation be at the mercy of foreign nations is an undesirable attribute in any currency. The US likes to call some countries currency manipulators, but this problem would be serious under a gold standard.

Currencies are based on trust

Since the USD is based on nothing except the US government's word, how can we trust USD not to be mismanaged?
The answer is that you can probably trust the fed until political stooges get put in place. Currently, the US's central bank managing the USD, the Federal Reserve (the Fed for friends & family), has administrative authority. The fed can say "no" to dumb requests from the president.
People who have no idea what the fed does like to chant "audit the fed", but the fed is already one of the best audited US federal entities. The transcripts of all their meetings are out in the open. As is their balance sheet, what they plan to do and why. If the US should audit anything it's the Department of Defense which operates without any accounting at all.
It's easy to see when a central bank will go rogue: it's when political yes-men are elected to the board.
For example, before printing themselves into hyperinflation, the Venezuelan president appointed a sociologist who publicly stated “Inflation does not exist in real life” and instead is a made up capitalist lie. Note what happened mere months after his gaining control over the Venezuelan currency
This is a key policy. One paper I really like, Sargent (1984) "The end of 4 big inflations" states:
The essential measures that ended hyperinflation in each of Germany,Austria, Hungary, and Poland were, first, the creation of an independentcentral bank that was legally committed to refuse the government'sdemand or additional unsecured credit and, second, a simultaneousalteration in the fiscal policy regime.
In english: *hyperinflation stops when the central bank can say "no" to the government."
The US Fed, like other well good central banks, is run by a bunch of nerds. When it prints money, even as aggressively as it has it does so for good reasons. You can see why they started printing on March 15th as the COVID lockdowns started:
The Federal Reserve is prepared to use its full range of tools to support the flow of credit to households and businesses and thereby promote its maximum employment and price stability goals.
In english: We're going to keep printing and lowering rates until jobs are back and inflation is under control. If we print until the sun is blotted out, we'll print in the shade.

BTC is not gold

Gold is a good asset for doomsday-preppers. If society crashes, gold will still have value.
How do we know that?
Gold has held value throughout multiple historic catastrophes over thousands of years. It had value before and after the Bronze Age Collapse, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and Gengis Khan being Gengis Khan.
Even if you erased humanity and started over, the new humans would still find gold to be economically valuable. When Europeans d̶i̶s̶c̶o̶v̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ c̶o̶n̶q̶u̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ g̶e̶n̶o̶c̶i̶d̶e̶d̶ went to America, they found gold to be an important item over there too. This is about equivalent to finding humans on Alpha-Centauri and learning that they think gold is a good store of value as well.
Some people are puzzled at this: we don't even use gold for much! But it has great properties:
First, gold is hard to fake and impossible to manufacture. This makes it good to ascertain payment.
Second, gold doesnt react to oxygen, so it doesn't rust or tarnish. So it keeps value over time unlike most other materials.
Last, gold is pretty. This might sound frivolous, and you may not like it, but jewelry has actual value to humans.
It's no coincidence if you look at a list of the wealthiest families, a large number of them trade in luxury goods.
To paraphrase Veblen humans have a profound desire to signal social status, for the same reason peacocks have unwieldy tails. Gold is a great way to achieve that.
On the other hand, BTC lacks all these attributes. Its value is largely based on common perception of value. There are a few fundamental drivers of demand:
Apart from these, it's hard to argue that BTC will retain value throughout some sort of economic catastrophe.

BTC is really risky

One last statement from Michael Saylor I take offense to is this:
“We feel pretty confident that Bitcoin is less risky than holding cash, less risky than holding gold,” MicroStrategy CEO said in an interview
"BTC is less risky than holding cash or gold long term" is nonsense. We saw before that BTC is more volatile on face value, and that as long as the Fed isn't run by spider monkeys stacked in a trench coat, the inflation is likely to be within reasonable bounds.
But on top of this, BTC has Abrupt downside risks that normal currencies don't. Let's imagine a few:

Blockchain solutions are fundamentally inefficient

Blockchain was a genius idea. I still marvel at the initial white paper which is a great mix of economics and computer science.
That said, blockchain solutions make large tradeoffs in design because they assume almost no trust between parties. This leads to intentionally wasteful designs on a massive scale.
The main problem is that all transactions have to be validated by expensive computational operations and double checked by multiple parties. This means waste:
Many design problems can be mitigated by various improvements over BTC, but it remains that a simple database always works better than a blockchain if you can trust the parties to the transaction.
submitted by VodkaHaze to badeconomics [link] [comments]

Why did I build AmputatorBot?

Why did I build AmputatorBot?
AmputatorBot.com | Remove AMP from URLs in just one click! - More info
Open-sourced on GitHub - More info
Summon AmputatorBot by mentioning it like this: u/AmputatorBot

Why AMP is a threat to the Open Web

What is AMP?
AMP is an open-source web component framework developed by the AMP Open Source Project, first announced by Google in 2015 as a reaction to Facebook’s Instant Articles and Apple News. While it was originally aimed at accelerating mobile pages (hence AMP), it’s now a much broader project aimed at improving the UX of websites, stories, ads and mail. The AMP framework consists of three components: AMP HTML, which is standard HTML markup with web components; AMP JavaScript, which manages resource loading; and AMP caches, which serves and validates AMP pages.
In plain English: AMP is Google’s attempt at making pages (and more) faster. They did a good job, pages built with the AMP framework will normally load faster. However, as this article explains, you won’t notice much of a difference unless the AMP library is served using the AMP cache, but more on that later.
The controversies with cached AMP pages
The AMP format is itself not much of a problem. In fact, we should applaud search engines that give ranking preference to fast-loading pages like AMP, but four aspects of its implementation are flawed:
  1. Google mobile Search’s Top Stories carousel has a premium position above of all other results, which is only accessible for AMP pages. These pages have to use a technology that was build and maintained mostly by Google (of the top 10 contributors to the AMP project on GitHub, 9 are Google employees), are then served by Google from their infrastructure and placed within a Google controlled user experience. And since this carousel generates a lot of clicks and revenue, publishers are left no choice but to embrace AMP. This has the effect of further reinforcing Google’s dominance of the Web. Fortunately, Google has announced that it's working on opening up the Top Stories carousel to non-AMP pages in 2021.
  2. The biggest performance boost doesn’t come from the AMP framework, but from preloading the page. It begs the question: Should preloading really be exclusive to AMP? They could introduce a way for publishers to allow or disallow preloading and if Google sees fit, they could preload those pages too, alongside AMP.
  3. When a user navigates from Google to a piece of content Google has recommended (or when a user clicks on a shared cached AMP link), they are, unwittingly, remaining within Google’s ecosystem and the publisher’s domain is obscured by the google.com/amp prefix. To work around this Google introduced Signed HTTP Exchanges ([Draft], [1], [2]), a web-standard that allows the browser to display the original site's URL, instead of the actual one (the one with the google.com/prefix). This would solve the original issue, but while doing so it introduced new ones (e.g. it obfuscates the fact that they're delivering the AMP page you're visiting). Interestingly enough, Google's Chrome already has support for this technology, but parties not involved with AMP are not so enthusiastic: Mozilla has deemed it a harmful web standard [2], and Apple has taken a similar stance.
  4. Google’s entire business model is about collecting as much personal data as possible, AMP is just another tool to do so. As described in Google’s Support article:
“When you use the Google AMP Viewer, Google and the publisher that made the AMP page may each collect data about you.”
The controversies with non-cached AMP pages
To be clear, the above flaws are only with AMP pages cached by Google (or another party like Bing or Cloudflare) but there are also plenty of pages simply utilizing the AMP framework, recognized by URLs such as bbc.com/news/amp/. However, these are also problematic, mainly because there's only a small performance improvement when AMP pages aren't cached and AMP pages tend to be less feature-rich and less diverse than their originals. And in some edge cases, it breaks stuff.
One could argue that the more popular the AMP framework becomes, the more AMP threatens the open web. That said, it should be clear that the biggest problem lies with the cached AMP pages.
AMP is open source, but that doesn't make it holy. Or as Ferdy Christant puts it quite nicely in his blog:
Google’s main defense is that AMP is open source. Which isn’t just a weak defense, it’s no defense at all. I can open source a plan for genocide. The term “open source” is meaningless if the thing that is open source is harmful.
Just so we’re clear, I’m not claiming Google or the AMP project is evil (hell, they might even have good intentions!), but the fact is that AMP and it's implementation have some major flaws that threaten the Open Web. And as long as that's the case, AmputatorBot will be there to remove AMP from your URLs.
AmputatorBot scans for AMP pages on Reddit and replies with the canonical version
Learn more
Up next for the nerds among us:
  • AmputatorBot.com
  • Automatic working subreddits
  • Non-working subreddits
  • Changelog
  • Opt-out & opt-back-in
  • Browser extension
  • Support the project by donating, giving feedback, summoning the bot or spreading the word

AmputatorBot.com

Remove AMP in just one click with www.AmputatorBot.com! This is a free online tool (no ads) to remove AMP from your URLs. All you have to do is to copy paste an AMP URL, click the conversion-button and that's all! For more (background) info, check out this post. Here's a quick (no but literally) demo:
A demo of the AMP-removal process over at AmputatorBot.com
Alternatively, you can do it even quicker by doing this:
https://amputatorbot.com/?https://www.google.com/amp/s/electrek.co/2018/06/19/tesla-model-3-assembly-line-inside-tent-elon-musk/amp/
It's build up like this:
https://amputatorbot.com + /? + https://www.google.com/amp/s/electrek.co/2018/06/19/tesla-model-3-assembly-line-inside-tent-elon-musk/amp/

Automatic working subreddits

u/amputatorbot currently works automatically in a select number of subreddits: Afghanistan, Africa, against5G, againstRFID, amputatorbot, anime_titties, Argentina, Assyria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bosnia, Brasil, Bulgaria, Business, CenturyClubStairs, Chile, Chodi, chrome, Colombia, conspiracy, CorpFree, cyberpunk, Cuba, DeAmazon, DebunkThis, DeFacebook, deGoogle, deMicrosoft, economy, Ecuador, entertainment, Environment, europe, Europe, europrivacy, FakeNews, Features, Fijian, firefox, France, freesoftware, gamernews, Germany, Greece, Guyana, hacking, helpmefind, hockey, HumanRights, Hungary, ID_news, indiaspeaks, initFreedom, Iranian, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kerala, Kurdistan, LeopardsAteMyFace, LevantineWar, MachineLearning, Malaysia, Mexico, MiddleEastNews, MideastPeace, Moldova, Nepal, NewsOfTheWeird, Nicaragua, NorthKoreaNews, Oceania, OnGuardForThee, Pakistan, Palestine, pcgaming, PeerTube, Philippines, Piracy, Poland, praisetheeditor, privacy, PuertoRico, robotics, Russia, Scotland, security, selfhosted, seo, Serbia, singapore, socialism, spacex, Spain, suckless, Switzerland, Syria, tech, technology, TechnologyDetox, test, TrueCrime, TrueCrimeDiscussion, TrueReddit, Turkey, Turkey, Ukraina, Ukraine, UkrainianConflict, UnresolvedMysteries, upliftingnews, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela, web_design, Westpapua, whatisthisthing, worldnews, Yemen and YemeniCrisis.
Feel free to hit me up with suggestions for subreddits to add!
You can summon the bot almost everywhere else by typing: u/AmputatorBot, more info here.

Non-working subreddits

AmputatorBot doesn't work in these subreddits android, androiddev, armenia, AskHistorians, askscience, AskScienceDiscussion, audio, australia, awfuleverything, bayarea, beer, belgium, bitcoin, books, canada, CanadaPolitics, cars, CCW, childfree, China, collapse, conservative, Cringetopia, croatia, CryptoCurrency, DataHoarder, disneyvacation, economics, ELI5, facepalm, flying, Futurology, gadgets, Games, gaming, gatesopencomeonin, geopolitics, Georgia, GlobalTalk, google, history, India, insaneparents, insanepeoplefacebook, instantkarma, iphone, iran, ireland, kitchener, korea, meme, moviedetails, movies, news, newzealand, nextfuckinglevel, nottheonion, oklahoma, pcmasterrace, Pete_Buttigieg, Philosophy, pihole, PoliticalDiscussion, politics, popheads, programming, raisedbynarcissists, rareinsults, Romania, science, SeattleWA, Sikh, SouthAfrica, space, survivor, television, Thailand, thenetherlands, TikTokCringe, TIL_Uncensored, todayilearned, trashy, tumblr, TwoXChromosomes, ukpolitics, unitedkingdom, unpopularopinion, USANews, warplaneporn, WatchPeopleDieInside, wellthatsucks, whatcouldgowrong, worldevents, worldpolitics, YouShouldKnow and almost all subreddits moderated by u/BotDefense or u/BotTerminator for diverse reasons. When you summon the bot there, you'll receive a DM with the canonical URL instead.p
If you're moderating a subreddit that is incorrectly listed here or if you would like AmputatorBot to work in your subreddit that's using u/BotDefense or u/BotTerminator please contact me.

Changelog

Check out the changelog here. Latest update: 22/08/2020

Opt out & opt back in

The bot works automatically in the subreddits mentioned above and manually using mentions.
Opt out: If you want to prevent the bot from replying to your comments and submissions, click here to opt out.
Opt back in: Did you opt-out and regret it? NP! Click here to opt back in.
Note: If you want to opt out from AmputatorBot on Twitter, please contact me or block it.

Browser-extension

Check out this browser-extension by Daniel Aleksandersen: 'Redirect AMP to HTML', it makes it that every time you click an AMP page, you will be redirected to the canonical page instead. In other words, it does the the same as u/AmputatorBot and AmputatorBot.com, but fully automatic. I can't recommend this one enough!

Support the project

.. By summoning the bot: If you've spotted an AMP URL on Reddit and u/AmputatorBot seems absent, you can summon the bot by mentioning u/AmputatorBot in a reply to the comment or submission containing the AMP URL. You'll receive a confirmation through PM. For more details, check out this post!
.. By giving feedback: Most of the new features were made after suggestions from you guys, so hit me up if you have any feedback! You can contact me on Reddit, fill an issue or make a pull request.
.. By sponsoring: The bot and website cost approximately €8.26 a month to host and while that might not seem like much, it adds up. All donations will be used ONLY to pay for hosting. You can specify any amount you want, but please keep in mind that I only want to try to cover some of the costs. Thank you so much! - https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=EU6ZFKTVT9VH2
.. By spreading the word: In the end, the only goal of AmputatorBot is to allow people to have an informed choice. You can help by spreading the word in whatever way you deem the most appropriate.

From the bottom of my heart, thank you so much for the tremendous support you've given me and AmputatorBot <3

https://preview.redd.it/fzhy8jedu6e51.png?width=3890&format=png&auto=webp&s=581561e0e267bb53ee3961a5e894633f8d6ff73f
submitted by Killed_Mufasa to AmputatorBot [link] [comments]

Bizarre: Coronavirus and the Number 33

This is the updated list as of March 6, 2020.

Got this from here http://itnt.news/1608
submitted by tommymbargo to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Frequently Asked Questions (Constantly Updated)

This is where you can find answers to some of the most frequently asked questions. If you can't find what you are looking for then perhaps try browsing our WIKI, or one of our past AMA Recaps!
The "most asked" questions are listed first. These will consistently change to reflect Kava's current landscape.

Relevant Questions (Timely)






Crypto Payday


  • How do I qualify for Crypto Payday?
    • Use Kava's DeFi Lending Platform to mint USDX.
      • Currently USDX can only be minted w/ BNB.

  • When are Crypto Paydays?
    • Every Wednesday.
      • Staring July 15th, 2020
      • Ending July 16th, 2021

  • Where can I go to mint BNB?
    • The new features will be accessible via integrated wallet and exchange applications such as Cosmostation, Forbole, Trust Wallet, and Frontier.

DeFi Lending Platform


  • What assets does Kava's DeFi Lending Platform currently support?
    • BNB

  • What are the next assets that will be supported by Kava's DeFi Lending Platform?
    • They Kava community will vote for the next supported asset.
      • Leading contenders are BTC, XRP, and Atom.

  • How are loans given out?
    • Once a user deposits collateral, loans are given out via USDX (Kava's Stable Token)

  • How much USD is USDX worth?
    • Each USDX is the equivalent of $1 (USD)

  • What should I do w/ my USDX?
    • Starting on June 10th you'll be able to begin earning minting rewards on your USDX via Kava's Crypto PayDay promotion.
    • In the very near future (Possibly Late June/Early July) USDX will be listed on exchanges, and can be used to purchase more crypto (Margin Trading) or can be cashed out.
    • Those who mint USDX prior to it's exchange listings will be considered "Early Adopters"

  • Why should I become an Early Adopter of the Kava DeFi Lending Platform?
    • Early Adopters who use the DeFi Lending platform prior to a USDX exchange listing should be doing so for the purpose of leveraging their existing BNB.
      • Early Adopters can take advantage of the Kava Payday rewards, which are likely to off their highest yield within the early stages of the promotion.

  • How/where can I access Kava's DeFi Lending Features?
    • The new features will be accessible via integrated wallet and exchange applications such as Cosmostation, Forbole, Trust Wallet, and Frontier.

  • What happens if my BNB deposit drops in price and becomes undercollateralized?
    • Similar to a traditional margin call, users will be required to deposit more assets (BNB) to bring their collateral back up to par with the loan they have minted.
    • Users will also be able to use their USDX to pay back the loan.
      • Thus, allowing the users to unlock and reclaim their deposits (BNB)

  • How is Kava different from MakerDao?
    • Maker Dao only accepts Ethereum based crypto assets, but Kava accepts all crypto assets!

  • Where can I go to learn more about Kava's DeFi Lending Platform?

Kava Token


  • What is the Kava Token?
    • The Kava Token is a fungible crypto asset of the Kava Blockchain.
    • It is a token that is native to the Kava Blockchain.

  • Where is the Kava Token currently Traded?
    • In 2019, The Kava Token became the first DeFi asset to be tradeable on Binance.
    • Besides from Binance, the Kava Token is available on over a dozen different exchanges including BitMax, MXC, and CoinOne.
    • For a complete list, check out Kava's Market Pairs Page on CoinMarketCap

  • Is the Kava Token currently on any American exchanges?
    • Currently there are not any American exchanges that are trading the Kava Token.
    • Kava works very closely w/ the US Securities & Exchange Comitee to make sure that everything Kava does falls within their guidelines.
      • When the time is right, Kava will be listed on American Exchanges.
      • It is a goal to be listed on American Exchanges, before the end of 2020.

  • How can Americans hold Kava?
    • Kava can be traded amongst users via a multitude of different wallets.
      • Including: Binance, Trust Wallet, Frontier Wallet, Forbole, and Cosmostation amongst many others.

  • What is Kava's Ticker Symbol?
    • The Kava token is traded as:
      • KAVA (all caps)

  • How much of the Kava Token is currently staked?

USDX



  • Is USDX currently listed on any exchanges?
    • As of June 2020, USDX is not currently listed on exchanges.
    • The goal is to get USDX listed on multiple exchanges shortly after the June 10th launch of Kava's DeFi Lending Platform
      • July 2020 is a hopeful time window for USDX listings

  • What is the ticker associated w/ USDX
    • The ticker is listed as:
      • USDX (all caps)


  • Why is USDX valuable?
    • USDX is the highest earning USD denominated account available for modern investors.
      • USDX offers superior yields without additional risk compared to traditional alternatives like checking and savings accounts that only deliver miniscule returns.

Kava General





  • Who are the Kava Knights?
    • The Kava Knights are an unofficial community group which is composed of the most loyal and dedicated of Kava Enthusiasts.
    • Kava may work w/ The Knights at times to co-promote contests and other community engaging activities, but they remain are not an official Kava community.


  • What set's Kava apart from similar projects?

  • Where should I go if I'm looking to become a validator?


  • Why did Kava choose to build with Cosmos?

  • When did Kava's mainnet go live?
    • Kava's mainnet when live in Autumn of 2019

  • What about Kava's CDP Mainnet?
    • Kava will launch it's CDP Mainnet on June 10th, 2020
      • This will be used to support Kava's DeFi Lending Platform
      • View the official announcement! (Coming Soon)



General Questions



  • What does "Cross Chain DeFi Platform" mean?

  • When does "CDP" stand for?
    • CDP stands for Collateralized Debt Position


  • Why do people use DeFi Lending Platforms?
    • DeFi Lending Platforms are used to take out loans.
      • Users deposit crypto as collateral, and then they receive a loan paid out in Stable Coins.
      • Kava currently accepts BNB as collateral, and pays out loans in USDX (Stable Coin)
      • People can use their loans for anything their hearts desire, but most will choose to use the funds to facilitate Margin Trading

  • What is minting?
    • Whenever a user deposits assets into a DeFi Lending Platform as collateral, they recieve a loan paid out in stable coins.
      • Prior to this loan, those stable coins did not exist.
      • The stable coins were "Minted" as a direct result of collateralization that spawned the loan.
    • In regards to Kava, users deposit collateral (like BNB) in order to "mint" USDX - which ultimately represents the loan that the user will receive.
submitted by Kava_Mod to KavaUSDX [link] [comments]

Thoughts on the ratio, the future & the path forward

Disclaimer: I'm an online rando, not a licensed financial advisor. DYODD.
In light of recent angst about the BTC/ETH ratio & choppy price action, perhaps the following will be useful to ground your thinking about what Ethereum represents, its path to success & how you personally might approach it.
I grew up in Eastern Europe. My family was relatively well off: after the Iron Curtain fell in 1989, my father got a Fulbright scholarship at Stanford. He returned with dollars and, more importantly, American connections.
He constantly talked about how the future was going to be defined by the Internet.
I was a kid. Whatever "the Internet" was supposed to be, I was way more interested in playing Spectre and messing around with ClarisWorks on the PowerBook 100 my dad had brought back. In my defense: I was 6 & English isn't my first language.
My dad turned out to be right. But through the 90s & beyond, the Internet didn't always seem to be what the future will be built on.
A casual look @ how long it took the web to reach maturity:
1980 through 1990: Invention, experimentation & backbone. MUDs & BBSs dominated. In 1990, a version of HTML that can be approximately called "usable" becomes available.
1990 through 1994: Early adoption, basic protocols & functionality. The first real web browser, Mosaic, launches. Significant web presence from universities, research institutions and large media entities or businesses. "Online for dummies" portals like AOL, Compuserve & Prodigy become common-place. Bryant Gumbel's infamous "What is Internet, anyway" moment turns out to be a seminal point of inflection for popular perception of web use & the utility of being online.
1994 through 1998: Consolidation, increased adoption, commercialization, disruption. Home & workplace use, ISPs & online purchases all show exponential growth. People joke around water coolers about using AOL trial CDs as coasters. Netscape makes web browsing more intuitive & integrates protocols (http, ftp, gopher, usenet, smtp/pop) into a single program. "You've got mail" segues from niche nerd activity into pop culture phenom. Edge technologies like peer-to-peer sharing become existential threats to decade-old business models, with significant legal and political implications. Online presence becomes mandatory for most businesses. Future giants like Google, Amazon & Ebay/PayPal explore & expand new ways of monetizing online space.
1998 through 2003: Commoditization, dot.com boom & bust cycle. Large proliferation of risky or poorly thought-out ventures, violent subsequent contraction. Pets.com happens a thousand times over. Teens begin to tune into early social media: Friendster, Hotornot, Myspace, Xanga. Popular culture becomes permeated by all things Internet, with signs of exhaustion due to overexposure. Through peaks & valleys, Fortune 100 players, old & new, scramble to firm up their respective beach-heads into cyberspace, praise be upon our once & future prophet, William Gibson.
2003 through 2007: Ubiquity. Internet is now an inextricable part of the desktop experience. Venture capital is in a perpetual arms race to fund "Web 2.0," a more accessible, secure & well-integrated way of experiencing online activity. Network advantages displace also-rans, with Google, Amazon and Facebook increasingly dominating "mind-share." Internationally, online conglomerates graduate into billion-dollar businesses. New business models crop up online. YouTube, 4chan and SomethingAwful are part of growing up for millions of teens.
2007 through present: Ubiquity, cubed. Internet becomes hyper-accessible & necessary to key aspects of contemporary life. Major parts of law, medicine, finance and governance are now highly dependent on online activity. With smart phones available for price points below $30, a significant majority of human beings on the planet can interact with the most powerful & immediate way of accessing information we've ever built on a mass scale. Content consumption and creation explodes. Instant messaging, video-conferencing, geo-location sevices & flexible payment models become trivial aspects of every-day life.
That's three decades for the Internet & its main interface, the web, to reach maturity.
Blockchain was initially parameterized in 1991. Bitcoin began in 2008. Ethereum was proposed in 2013.
If we compare blockchain in general & Ethereum in particular to the development and eventual domination of the Internet, we're barely making headway through the second phase: early adoption, basic protocols & functionality. There's disruption & early commercialization, especially with defi & supply chains, but wide-spread adoption & killer "Keep It Simple, Stupid" apps akin to Netscape aren't here yet.
Took a while to get here, but here's my first basic point:
It's very, very early on in the journey.
In some ways, blockchain & Ethereum are like the Internet in that they represent radical new technologies.
In some ways, blockchain & Ethereum are unlike the Internet.
Thin protocols like http, ftp, email, etc, simply move data around. Value is captured by entities which acquire data: Google, Amazon, Ebay, Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter.
Fat protocols like any variety of blockchains both move data around AND store it. Value is captured in the protocol itself.
My second basic point:
Based on objective data such as network use and development activity, Ethereum is the run-away front-runner when it comes to public, un-permissioned blockchains.
We're firmly in the "overestimating early adoption/change" phase of blockchain & cyrpto-currency. Multiple projects in the top 25 by marketcap metric are of dubious technical & financial value. Some exchanges engage in market-distorting practices. Fraudulent "personalities" in the space still command significant attention. There is material risk to involvement in the early stages of any venture, blockchain & Ethereum included.
But: The flip to "overestimating early adoption/change" is "underestimating long term adoption/change."
If my first two points are accurate, then 2019 is to crypto what 1994 was to the Internet, and we can barely imagine the degree to which the world will run on blockchain in 2029.
If you're reading this, you're part of the 0.001% smart or lucky enough to understand what future is being built on, the same way that my father knew how the Internet will shape these last three decades.
You have a one-in-a-lifetime opportunity. Things like the BTC/ETH ratio & 20% fiat valuation drops represent trivial noise in a broader landscape defined by tectonic realignments in technology, finance and politics.
In conclusion, I'd like to encourage everybody to consider:
  • What scale are you thinking on?
  • What timeline are you thinking on?
  • Are you aiming for something life-changing or not?
I know what my answers are.
Good luck & god speed, brothers & sisters.
submitted by thrw2534122019 to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Vechain in the last 30 Days: Apotheosis, Blockchain X, BMW, University partnership, DApp ecosystem, BitOcean ICO, Carbon banking, Live use cases, Early adopter rewards and more

This post is for those who are new to Cryptocurrency or want to find out more about VeChain. The text "VeChain" has been banned in this subreddit for the last 30 days. For more details about the ban itself, please visit this cryptocurrencymeta post. Changes have been made and official channels of communications have been opened up to prevent this from happening in the future.
All feedback is welcome, and all discussion is encouraged, but please no moon-posting, ridiculous price speculation or baseless FUD. Looking forward to answering any questions you guys have :) VeChain Foundation COO Kevin Feng is holding a Business AMA with Boxmining today, so new information is coming very soon.

TL:DR.

Updates from the last 30 days

It's been a big month for VeChain as they have continued to work and share with the community. Here are the updates from their Official Medium channel and Reddit Rebrand Post

New website - https://www.vechain.org/

It has loads of useful information and a well produced introduction video. I would highly recommend reading through the website to get an idea of the scope of what VeChainThor is trying to accomplish.
"We are controlled by the few, the powerful and the greedy. We should be free. Free to choose, to trade, to create. It is time for a new world, a world founded on safety and security. A world where everything you do creates power, power for all. And you, you will decide the shape of this world. The power to change the future, is in your hands. VeChain." VeChain Introduction Video

What is Blockchain X?

Blockchain X is a global enterprise level public blockchain platform. VeChainThor is referring to their network/protocol as Blockchain X, to differentiate it from Bitcoin (Blockchain 1.0) and Ethereum (Blockchain 2.0 = Blockchain 1.0 + Smart Contracts).

Blockchain X = Blockchain 2.0 + IoT + AI + VET/VeThor = A living digital ecosystem

  • Blockchain = structure - bones, muscle etc (immutable trustworthy network)
  • IoT = senses - touch, vision, taste, smell, sound (collect real world information from RFID/NFC/QR etc.)
  • VET/VeThor = bone marrow/blood - generate blood & circulate (value transfer on the network)
  • AI = brain - information synthesis (automation of network with deep learning)

VeChainThor: the top candidate for enterprise and government level adoption of Blockchain

VeChainThor has an extremely strong development plan geared towards enterprise and government level adoption. If successful in their execution, I see VeChain being the leading cryptoasset comparable to Ethereum in size. The reasons I believe they will succeed are due to their ecosystem development, innovative governance model, robust economic model and strong strategic partnerships. The evidence of their success is snowballing with each new enterprise level partner and client.

DApps & Ecosystem development

The infrastructure layer has adoption in mind at the very core. Governments and enterprises will prioritise safety and security before venturing into blockchain adoption. (Mentioned in the introduction video.) The core DApps, VeVID (Verified identity, KYC/AML), VeVOT (Voting, Governance tool) and VeSCC (Smart Contract Certification, Regulatory compliance) provide the safety and security that governments and enterprises will demand. Blockchain X will have built-in KYC/AML, Governance and Regulation compliance. This sets it apart from other protocols and ICO platforms.

Governance model

The governance model is a balanced mix of decentralisation and centralisation. With problems such as Bitcoin's scaling debate, it appears that a purely decentralised governance structure may be inefficient. VeChain will use a new model of a decentralised system through centralised channels. The final decisions will be made in a decentralised democratic process through VeVOT by stakeholders with voting authority. I believe this model will be more widely adopted as it retains some of the efficient centralised channels that enterprise & government are familiar with, while still giving overall control to the network participants via a democratic voting system.

Economic model

The two-token economic model splits the value in the network into VET and VeThor. VET's primary function is to generate VeThor. VeThor represents the underlying costs of using the VeChainThor blockchain. All smart contract execution and transactions will require payment with VeThor. Through the dynamic rate of VeThor generation, the fiat value of VeThor can be kept relatively stable. For example, if the VeThor price was too high due to an increase in enterprise demand, the VeThor generation rate can be increased, which increases supply, and brings the price back down. The opposite is also true if the VeThor price is too low. The way I see VET is a store of value, a representation of ownership of part of the network and the right to use the network. Whereas VeThor is the perfect medium of exchange and a pure utility token. By using a two-token system, VeThor can have a stable fiat value over a long period of time. A company will be able to calculate how much VeThor will be needed for a consistent fiat value year after year and will be able to budget for this. This is extremely useful for enterprise and government level adoption since it removes the inherent price volatility from a nascent market like crypto.
VeChain also has a Node system, whereby holding VET generates additional rewards. Nodes of different levels will generate up to 200% additional VeThor compared to the base rate. This encourages long term staking in the network and decreases volatility. See the Apotheosis Part II article and X Series Node article for more information. A portion of VET supply will be locked up when nodes activate. Long term VET holders will not sell and downgrade their status. This decreased supply will lead to price increases. Early adopters (Deadline to stake: Before 20th March 2018) will be rewarded in the new X Series Node system. Features include exclusive participation in VeChain ecosystem project whitelists. (Something I'm excited about since I believe there will be a handful of reverse ICOs from traditional enterprise clients)

Technology

VeChain is planning on adding more than 100 additional full-time developers by the end of 2018.
For those interested in the technology of Blockchain X, I would direct you to the Medium AMAs where the VeChain team have provided detailed answers to common questions. Hardware 1, Hardware 2, Software 1 and Software 2 are worth a read.

Strategic partners

The three strategic partners each play a key role in VeChainThor's expansion. PWC has clients which make up 85% of the Fortune 500. DNV-GL is the preferred provider of those Fortune 500 companies for management systems certification services. PWC and DNV-GL will serve to introduce their enterprise clients to VeChain and increase adoption. BitOcean is positioning itself as a Fiat on-ramp for Crypto in Japan through physical ATMs and online exchanges, with approval by Japan's Financial Services Authority. BitOcean also plans to operate in China when regulations are finalised. BitOcean represents a Fiat/VET pairing that may serve to decouple VET/BTC and lead to independence of VET from the whims of BTC price.

Evidence of adoption to date: Existing clients & Investors

VeChain currently has 180 business opportunities in their pipeline for 2018 (compared to 4 use cases in 2016 and 22 in 2017). They have real uses cases and existing clients that range from medium to large enterprises. Revealed clients include Chinese Government Gui'an New Area project, BMW, Groupe Renault, DIG, Kuehne + Nagel, China Unicom, NRCC - State Tobacco, MLILY, Sunshine culture, Hubei Sanxin Cultural Media, Fanghuwang, YIDA future, Madeforgoods and iTaotaoke. Each of these partnerships deserve a detailed post on their own, they are all available on VeChain's Medium page. Taken together, it becomes clear what type of Ecosystem VeChainThor is trying to build.
Jiangsu Printed Electronics and Xiamen Innov Information Technology are technology partners and I suspect will be mass producing the RFID/NFC chips.
Breyer Capital and Fenbushi capital are the two featured investors on VeChain's website. Jim Breyer generally makes some pretty smart investment decisions. His only other crypto investments are Circle and Ethereum.
Bonus news: This week they are presenting with DNV-GL a cold chain supply chain solution at the Global Food Safety Initiative conference 2018. Zoom in and you'll see VeChain Intelligent Control Display System. DNV-GL have also launched their new digital assurance solution, My Story™. Four top Italian wine producers are using My Story™ under supervision of the Italian wine authorities. Twitter and DNVGL link.

China's potential

China is widely known to be anti-cryptocurrency but extremely pro-blockchain. China's "13th Five year plan 2016-2020" focuses on moving up in the value chain by abandoning old heavy industry and building up bases of modern information-intensive infrastructure, with blockchain and Smart Cities being a key technological focus. VeChain has achieved approval from the Government of the People's Republic of China with Gui'an New Area project, multiple mentions on state owned media (CCTV) and deals with state owned enterprises (China Tobacco). China will not fall behind in the international Blockchain race, they will finalise regulations and adopt Blockchain rapidly in the coming years. VeChain appears to be one of the leaders in the field, with their largest office in Shanghai and existing government connections.

Leader in the field

Last but not least, VeChain is leading the field in a number of areas.
  1. Academic research: VeResearch with Michigan State University #1 for supply chain management and another university to be announced
  2. Transparency: quarterly financial reports, regular social media updates, multiple AMAs, response to cryptocurrency ban, directly addressing FUD in official Telegram channels
  3. Corporate responsibility: cryptocurrency disaster recovery plan
  4. Environmental responsibility: Carbon bank initiative with DNV-GL

Skeptics section

In the interests of balanced discussion, I will update this section with skepticism I find in the comments below.
  1. "No whitepaper"
    • VeChain are working on a Whitepaper as part of their Q1 2018 goals. Information normally found in a Whitepaper has been made available through the development plan. I'm actually not too fussed about not having a whitepaper. For me evidence of enterprise adoption is a more useful indicator of how successful VeChainThor could be.
  2. "No official wallet" "No Mainnet"
    • VeChainThor has been operating as a private blockchain since June 2016. Public VeChainThor Blockchain Launch, VeChain Wallet with VeThor Forge Function will be released in Q2 2018 according to the roadmap.
  3. "VeChain are dumping their VET on the open market"
  4. "Can we talk about the fact that the BMW "partnership" is not really a partnership? VEN is allowed to participate into a startup program hosted by BMW. BMW is not a client. http://www.bmwstartupgarage.com/partner " - u/DutchDolt
    • "BMWstartupgarage" has neither been confirmed or denied by BMW or VeChain, it has been spread by a youtuber called "Crypto Gem"
    • Going to the website linked, BMW refers to successful participants as both partners and clients
    • This is still a developing partnership with details under NDA, however the VeChain/BMW link has been confirmed at the VeChain rebranding event and by Sarah VeChain Country Manager
  5. "Vote manipulation" "Shilling" "Brigading" "You're a paid shiller"
    • In the past VeChain Telegram Moderators wilfully participated in brigading, leading to the ban on the word "VeChain" for 30 days in cryptocurrency
    • It is difficult to differentiate manipulated behaviour and organic behaviour on Reddit, the moderators here do an amazing job getting rid of spam and detecting vote manipulation
    • The Official VeChain Foundation has stepped in to help Reddit moderators prevent VeChain vote manipulation
    • Official Telegram Rules: Brigading & Reddit links: We have a new policy regarding Reddit and 'brigading'. No brigading of any kind will be allowed. If you want to post a Reddit link, do so with the "np." prefix added to its URL, for example "np.reddit.com /CryptoCurrency". No spamming for upvotes, as it hurts both of our communities.
    • This is strictly enforced by Telegram moderators and results in a warning then an insta-ban for repeat offenders
    • https://imgur.com/a/sOva9 is being copy-pasted en masse by detractors as evidence of brigading
    • Image shows Boxminig feeling sorry for WTC PR team and a "np" link to a different thread
    • I wish I got paid to shill VeChain, I made this post to share a fundamentally strong crypto with the community _________________________________________________________________________________________

An interesting perspective supported by CEO Sunny Lu

NTSpike: VeChain Thor Is Positioning to Become THE #1 Enterprise dApp Platform, and Here's Why - A Systems Analyst's Perspective
Disclaimer: My holdings are 80% VEN and remainder in NEO, WTC, TKY, XRB, AMB
submitted by enozym111 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Is Crypto Currency truly at risk due to Quantum Computers, and what can you do about it?

Is Crypto Currency truly at risk due to Quantum Computers, and what can you do about it?

There is no denying that the Quantum revolution is coming. Security protocols for the internet, banking, telecommunications, etc... are all at risk, and your Bitcoins (and alt-cryptos) are next!
This article is not really about quantum computers[i], but, rather, how they will affect the future of cryptocurrency, and what steps a smart investor will take. Since this is a complicated subject, my intention is to provide just enough relevant information without being too “techy.”

The Quantum Evolution

In 1982, Nobel winning physicist, Richard Feynman, hypothesized how quantum computers[ii] would be used in modern life.
Just one year later, Apple released the “Apple Lisa”[iii] – a home computer with a 7.89MHz processor and a whopping 5MB hard drive, and, if you enjoy nostalgia, it used 5.25in floppy disks.
Today, we walk around with portable devices that are thousands of times more powerful, and, yet, our modern day computers still work in a simple manner, with simple math, and simple operators[iv]. They now just do it so fast and efficient that we forget what’s happening behind the scenes.
No doubt, the human race is accelerating at a remarkable speed, and we’ve become obsessed with quantifying everything - from the everyday details of life to the entire universe[v]. Not only do we know how to precisely measure elementary particles, we also know how to control their actions!
Yet, even with all this advancement, modern computers cannot “crack” cryptocurrencies without the use of a great deal more computing power, and since it’s more than the planet can currently supply, it could take millions, if not billions, of years.
However, what current computers can’t do, quantum computers can!
So, how can something that was conceptualized in the 1980’s, and, as of yet, has no practical application, compromise cryptocurrencies and take over Bitcoin?
To best answer this question, let’s begin by looking at a bitcoin address.

What exactly is a Bitcoin address?

Well, in layman terms, a Bitcoin address is used to send and receive Bitcoins, and looking a bit closer (excuse the pun), it has two parts:[vi]
A public key that is openly shared with the world to accept payments. A public key that is derived from the private key. The private key is made up of 256 bits of information in a (hopefully) random order. This 256 bit code is 64 characters long (in the range of 0-9/a-f) and further compressed into a 52 character code (using RIPEMD-160).
NOTE: Although many people talk about Bitcoin encryption, Bitcoin does not use Encryption. Instead, Bitcoin uses a hashing algorithm (for more info, please see endnote below[vii]).
Now, back to understanding the private key:
The Bitcoin address “1EHNa6Q4Jz2uvNExL497mE43ikXhwF6kZm” translates to a private key of “5HpHagT65TZzG1PH3CSu63k8DbpvD8s5ip4nEB3kEsreAnchuDf” which further translates to a 256 bit private key of “0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001” (this should go without saying, but do not use this address/private key because it was compromised long ago.) Although there are a few more calculations that go behind the scenes, these are the most relevant details.
Now, to access a Bitcoin address, you first need the private key, and from this private key, the public key is derived. With current computers, it’s classically impractical to attempt to find a private key based on a public key. Simply put, you need the private key to know the public key.
However, it has already been theorized (and technically proven) that due to private key compression, multiple private keys can be used to access the same public key (aka address). This means that your Bitcoin address has multiple private keys associated with it, and, if someone accidentally discovers or “cracks” any one of those private keys, they have access to all the funds in that specific address.
There is even a pool of a few dedicated people hunting for these potential overlaps[viii], and they are, in fact, getting very efficient at it. The creator of the pool also has a website listing every possible Bitcoin private key/address in existence[ix], and, as of this writing, the pool averages 204 trillion keys per day!
But wait! Before you get scared and start panic selling, the probability of finding a Bitcoin address containing funds (or even being used) is highly unlikely – nevertheless, still possible!
However, the more Bitcoin users, the more likely a “collision” (finding overlapping private/public key pairs)! You see, the security of a Bitcoin address is simply based on large numbers! How large? Well, according to my math, 1.157920892373x1077 potential private keys exist (that number represents over 9,500 digits in length! For some perspective, this entire article contains just over 14,000 characters. Therefore, the total number of Bitcoin addresses is so great that the probability of finding an active address with funds is infinitesimal.

So, how do Quantum Computers present a threat?

At this point, you might be thinking, “How can a quantum computer defeat this overwhelming number of possibilities?” Well, to put it simple; Superposition and Entanglement[x].
Superposition allows a quantum bit (qbit) to be in multiple states at the same time. Entanglement allows an observer to know the measurement of a particle in any location in the universe. If you have ever heard Einstein’s quote, “Spooky Action at a Distance,” he was talking about Entanglement!
To give you an idea of how this works, imagine how efficient you would be if you could make your coffee, drive your car, and walk your dog all at the same time, while also knowing the temperature of your coffee before drinking, the current maintenance requirements for your car, and even what your dog is thinking! In a nutshell, quantum computers have the ability to process and analyze countless bits of information simultaneously – and so fast, and in such a different way, that no human mind can comprehend!
At this stage, it is estimated that the Bitcoin address hash algorithm will be defeated by quantum computers before 2028 (and quite possibly much sooner)! The NSA has even stated that the SHA256 hash algorithm (the same hash algorithm that Bitcoin uses) is no longer considered secure, and, as a result, the NSA has now moved to new hashing techniques, and that was in 2016! Prior to that, in 2014, the NSA also invested a large amount of money in a research program called “Penetrating Hard Targets project”[xi] which was used for further Quantum Computer study and how to break “strong encryption and hashing algorithms.” Does NSA know something they’re not saying or are they just preemptively preparing?
Nonetheless, before long, we will be in a post-quantum cryptography world where quantum computers can crack crypto addresses and take all the funds in any wallet.

What are Bitcoin core developers doing about this threat?

Well, as of now, absolutely nothing. Quantum computers are not considered a threat by Bitcoin developers nor by most of the crypto-community. I’m sure when the time comes, Bitcoin core developers will implement a new cryptographic algorithm that all future addresses/transactions will utilize. However, will this happen before post-quantum cryptography[xii]?
Moreover, even after new cryptographic implementation, what about all the old addresses? Well, if your address has been actively used on the network (sending funds), it will be in imminent danger of a quantum attack. Therefore, everyone who is holding funds in an old address will need to send their funds to a new address (using a quantum safe crypto-format). If you think network congestion is a problem now, just wait…
Additionally, there is the potential that the transition to a new hashing algorithm will require a hard fork (a soft fork may also suffice), and this could result in a serious problem because there should not be multiple copies of the same blockchain/ledger. If one fork gets attacked, the address on the other fork is also compromised. As a side-note, the blockchain Nebulas[xiii] will have the ability to modify the base blockchain software without any forks. This includes adding new and more secure hashing algorithms over time! Nebulas is due to be released in 2018.

Who would want to attack Bitcoin?

Bitcoin and cryptocurrency represent a threat to the controlling financial system of our modern economy. Entire countries have outright banned cryptocurrency[xiv] and even arrested people[xv], and while discrediting it, some countries are copying cryptocurrency to use (and control) in their economy[xvi]!
Furthermore, Visa[xvii], Mastercard[xviii], Discover[xix], and most banks act like they want nothing to do with cryptocurrency, all the while seeing the potential of blockchain technology and developing their own[xx]. Just like any disruptive technology, Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies have their fair share of enemies!
As of now, quantum computers are being developed by some of the largest companies in the world, as well as private government agencies.
No doubt, we will see a post-quantum cryptography world sooner than most realize. By that point, who knows how long “3 letter agencies” will have been using quantum technology - and what they’ll be capable of!

What can we do to protect ourselves today?

Of course, the best option is to start looking at how Bitcoin can implement new cryptographic features immediately, but it will take time, and we have seen how slow the process can be just for scaling[xxi].
The other thing we can do is use a Bitcoin address only once for outgoing transactions. When quantum computers attack Bitcoin (and other crypto currencies), their first target will be addresses that have outgoing transactions on the blockchain that contain funds.
This is due to the fact that when computers first attempt to crack a Bitcoin address, the starting point is when a transaction becomes public. In other words, when the transaction is first signed – a signed transaction is a digital signature derived from the private key, and it validates the transaction on the network. Compared to classical computers, quantum computers can exponentially extrapolate this information.
Initially, Bitcoin Core Software might provide some level of protection because it only uses an address once, and then sends the remaining balance (if any) to another address in your keypool. However, third party Bitcoin wallets can and do use an address multiple times for outgoing transactions. For instance, this could be a big problem for users that accept donations (if they don’t update their donation address every time they remove funds). The biggest downside to Bitcoin Core Software is the amount of hard-drive space required, as well as diligently retaining an up-to-date copy of the entire blockchain ledger.
Nonetheless, as quantum computers evolve, they will inevitably render SHA256 vulnerable, and although this will be one of the first hash algorithms cracked by quantum computers, it won’t be the last!

Are any cryptocurrencies planning for the post-quantum cryptography world?

Yes, indeed, there are! Here is a short list of ones you may want to know more about:

Full disclosure:

Although I am in no way associated with any project listed above, I do hold coins in all as well as Bitcoin, Litecoin and many others.
The thoughts above are based on my personal research, but I make no claims to being a quantum scientist or cryptographer. So, don’t take my word for anything. Instead, do your own research and draw your own conclusions. I’ve included many references below, but there are many more to explore.
In conclusion, the intention of this article is not to create fear or panic, nor any other negative effects. It is simply to educate. If you see an error in any of my statements, please, politely, let me know, and I will do my best to update the error.
Thanks for reading!

References

[i] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhHMJCUmq28 – A great video explaining quantum computers.
[ii] https://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_97/journal/vol4/spb3/ - A brief history of quantum computing.
[iii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Lisa - More than you would ever want to know about the Apple Lisa.
[iv] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpIctyqH29Q&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtNlUrzyH5r6jN9ulIgZBpdo - Want to learn more about computer science? Here is a great crash course for it!
[v] https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/quantify - What does quantify mean?
[vi] https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Private_key - More info about Bitcoin private keys.
[vii] https://www.securityinnovationeurope.com/blog/page/whats-the-difference-between-hashing-and-encrypting - A good example of the deference between Hash and Encryption
[viii] https://lbc.cryptoguru.org/stats - The Large Bitcoin Collider.
[ix] http://directory.io/ - A list of every possible Bitcoin private key. This website is a clever way of converting the 64 character uncompressed key to the private key 128 at a time. Since it is impossible to save all this data in a database and search, it is not considered a threat! It’s equated with looking for a single needle on the entire planet.
[x] https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-quantum-computing/quantum-computing-101#Superposition-and-entanglement – Brief overview of Superposition and Entanglement.
[xi] https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/nsa-seeks-to-build-quantum-computer-that-could-crack-most-types-of-encryption/2014/01/02/8fff297e-7195-11e3-8def-a33011492df2_story.html?utm_term=.e05a9dfb6333 – A review of the Penetrating Hard Targets project.
[xii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptography - Explains post-quantum cryptography.
[xiii] https://www.nebulas.io/ - The nebulas project has some amazing technology planned in their roadmap. They are currently in testnet stage with initial launch expected taking place in a few weeks. If you don’t know about Nebulas, you should check them out. [xiv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legality_of_bitcoin_by_country_or_territory - Country’s stance on crypto currencies.
[xv] https://www.cnbc.com/2017/08/30/venezuela-is-one-of-the-worlds-most-dangerous-places-to-mine-bitcoin.html - Don’t be a miner in Venezuela!
[xvi] http://www.newsweek.com/russia-bitcoin-avoid-us-sanctions-cryptocurrency-768742 - Russia’s plan for their own crypto currency.
[xvii] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2018/01/05/visa-locks-bitcoin-payment-cards-crackdown-card-issue - Recent attack from visa against crypto currency.
[xviii] https://www.ccn.com/non-government-digital-currency-junk-says-mastercard-ceo-rejecting-bitcoin/ - Mastercards position about Bitcoin.
[xix] http://www.livebitcoinnews.com/discover-joins-visa-mastercard-barring-bitcoin-support/ - Discovers position about Bitcoin.
[xx] http://fortune.com/2017/10/20/mastercard-blockchain-bitcoin/ - Mastercard is making their own blockchain.
[xxi] https://bitcoincore.org/en/2015/12/21/capacity-increase/ - News about Bitcoin capacity. Not a lot of news…
[xxii] https://learn.iota.org/faq/what-makes-iota-quantum-secure - IOTA and quantum encryption.
[xxiii] https://eprint.iacr.org/2011/191.pdf - The whitepaper of Winternitz One-Time Signature Scheme
[xxiv] https://cardanoroadmap.com/ - The Cardano project roadmap.
[xxv] https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/490 - More about the BLISS hash system.
[xxvi] https://www.ethereum.org/ - Home of the Ethereum project.
[xxvii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-3#Security_against_quantum_attacks – SHA3 hash algorithm vs quantum computers.
[xxviii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamport_signature - Lamport signature information.
[xxix] https://theqrl.org/ - Home of the Quantum Resistant Ledger project.
submitted by satoshibytes to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

FAQ & Daily General Discussion - January 3th, 2018

FAQ below, daily discussion in the comments! /RaiTrade for all price and trading related posts
Welcome!
As only 2 stickied threads are possible, we have decided to combine the "Are you new here" and the daily discussion thread. XRB is attracting more and more people, both veterans and newbies in the cryptoworld. As XRB is quite a bit different than other coins/blockchains, it's normal that a lot of users have (the same) questions. So please, before making a new thread, read this post first and use the search bar! Threads that are created which contain a question to which an answer is available here, will be locked and directed to this post.
 
Guidelines for posting in this thread:
 
Questions, debates, meta issues, etc are all welcome. Breaking news should be posted separately from this thread. Rules:
 
Be respectful to one another. Follow the golden rule. No trolling or shilling.
 
Guidelines for posting new threads:
 
Is your thread something that does not fit in the daily thread or in another 'general' thread? Do you have a question, and it's not in the list below? Do you have exiting news to post? Did you use the search bar first? Good, go ahead :-)
 
The Whitepaper: In logical order, we start with the whitepaper. It contains the complete details about RaiBlocks, including some more technical details. Even if you're not technical, take a quick look at it. It will explain a lot! https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_Whitepaper__English.pdf
 
The FAQs: Now the technical FAQs, a document explaining how it works, how it compares to other coins, ... https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_FAQ.pdf
 
Let's keep a decent overview of other, more practical questions :-)
 
Guide to set up your wallet https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7bw77e/how_to_setup_your_desktop_wallet/
 
How do I buy or store XRB? Check out these guides: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7i0co0/the_definitive_guide_to_buying_and_storing/ https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7iv89b/how_to_buy_xrb_without_waiting_for_a_transaction/
 
My desktop wallet isn't syncing! Do the numbers between the brackets still move? Good. The numbers before the parentheses are the number of blocks the wallet has verified, the numbers between parentheses is the amount of downloaded-but-not-yet-verified blocks. Is the wallet unlocked? Good, it needs to be unlocked to be able to sync. Still nothing? Go to 'accounts' - 'use account'. Still nothing? Close the wallet, reopen it.
 
What is a representative? Ah, so you haven't read the whitepaper haven't you... When conflicting blocks arise, a vote will have to be cast on which block to accept. Since you won't be online 24/7, you can outsource your voting power to a representative, who are online 24/7. They cannot access your funds, and you can change it anytime.
 
What is the incentive to run a node? Apart from helping the network and making it more secure, this user gives a detailed answer: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
My transaction isn't visible in my wallet or it says 'not pocketed' on the block explorer! Is your wallet fully synced? Yes? Good, it needs to be completely synced before it will show your balances. Nothing? Go to "https://raiblocks.net/account/index.php?acc=ADDRESS HERE". Do you see the transaction there (as 'not pocketed')? Good, that means that it's just a matter of showing it in your wallet, the coins are linked to your address already. In your wallet, go to 'Accounts' - 'Use account', 'Back', 'Advanced' - 'Search for receivables'. Did it work? Good. If not, go to 'Advanced' - 'Account explorer', hit refresh. Still nothing? Close/kill the wallet and reopen it. Still nothing? Go to 'Advanced' and change the unit from Mxrb to xrb and back to Mxrb. Stillll nothing? Fine, make a thread!
 
The syncing is sooo slow!! On HDD, it can take a couple days for it to sync. Why? Every block is only 400bytes in size, they all need to be written on your HDD. SSD takes about 12h. Check the bottom of this post for a shortcut if you use HDD (or SSD and have no patience :-) ).
 
My withdrawal from BitGrail/Mercatox isn't working!! BitGrail and Mercatox are having quite some issues, both due to a bug in their RaiBlocks node, and because of being overwelmed. They have to do each withdrawal manually. Log a ticket and have patience! Mercatox support: https://mercatox.com/support BitGrail support: to be added when they're back
 
We need a new exchange & website & ...!! Indeed, large exchange would be super!. But before that, we need a new website, mobile wallets, ... Those are in the make. Don't ask about the new exchanges, no one knows!
 
What is the incentive to run a node? There is no monetary reward, but tread this post/comment! https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
We're limited to 7k TPS, how's that scalable!? The current limitation of 7K TPS is a hardware limitation of writing data to the disk, not a protocol limitation. As hardware improves, so will the TPS limit.
 
Does the receiver account have to be online when I create my send transaction? No, whenever the send transaction goes out, the funds are "not pocketed" by the receiver. The funds are as good as the receivers and cannot be revoked by the sender. "Not pocketed" funds do NOT expire.
 
What are "not pocketed" funds? A transaction consists of a "send" and a "receive" transaction. During the period where a "send" doesn't have its partnering "receive" transaction, the accounts are considered "not pocketed" by the recipient. "Not pocketed" funds are securely the receiver's funds. Once the receiver's wallet comes online, is fully synced, and unlocked, the funds will automatically be signed into their account chain.
 
What are the requirements to run a node? Currently the only real recommendation is to have a fast storage medium, such as an SSD instead of HDD. This is because currently the full node software does a lot of disk I/O for rapidly processing transactions. This may change with future full node versions that better utilize available system RAM and relax disk I/O.
 
What do the numbers at the top of the desktop wallet mean? The numbers will look like: processed (unprocessed downloaded) Where "processed" is the number of downloaded blocks that your node has processed, and "unprocessed downloaded" are blocks that your software has downloaded but not processed yet. To be fully synced, all blocks must be processed. As new transactions are created on the network, they will be downloaded into the "unprocessed" category to be subsequently processed.
 
How can I run a full node? The desktop wallet is already a full node! Just by running it you are helping
 
Can I send funds to my wallet before it is synced? Yes. Funds can be sent to any "xrb_" address, even if they were created in an offline environment. RaiBlocks is exactly the same as ethereum or bitcoin in this sense. The funds will show up when the wallet is fully synced with the network. Make sure to back up your seed!
 
How do I backup my wallet? Just write down your seed and keep it in a safe place. All accounts generated from that seed will be generated again (in order) when you restore that seed.
 
Can I reuse an address? Yes, unlike IOTA you can reuse addresses like in Bitcoin and Ethereum. Please understand the reasoning for this; IOTA does this because it is a drawback to the quantum-proof digital signature algorithm they use. RaiBlocks' current digital signature algorithm is not quantum proof, but the devs have expressed interest in changing to a quantum-proof algortihm as the field matures and quantum computers become a more significant threat to the network.
 
What's up with the units? Currently the ticker XRB on exchanges represents 1 Mxrb (or million xrb). As the name suggests, 1Mxrb = 1000000 xrb. The smallest unit of RaiBlocks is the raw. There are 1024 raw in an xrb, or 1030 raw in an Mxrb/XRB. Whenever people are talking, they are generally talking in XRB or equivalently Mxrb
 
What is the max supply? The max supply is 133,248,290 XRB. For units see the question above. Why this number? Well RaiBlock's value is kept in a uint128 variable (unsigned 128-bit integer). An uint128 has max value (2128)-1, which is approximately 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This was the original number of "raw" in RaiBlocks. RaiBlocks was distributed via a Captcha faucet distribution system; of which 133,248,290 XRB were distributed. Due to some non-technical issues, the faucet distribution was cut short and the remaining quantity was burned. This leaves just 133,248,290 XRB (approximately 133,248,290,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 raw) circulating.
 
Can someone access my funds even if I use a password (desktop wallet) Yes. The password feature of the desktop wallet just encrypts the seed locally on your computer. If anyone gets access to your plaintext (unencrypted seed, the thing we tell you to backup) they have access to your funds. The benefit of the password is that if someone has access to your computer, they don't immediately have access to your raiblocks.
 
Whats a seed? What's a private key? Whats a public key? Any time you set up a Raiblocks address (such as creating a new wallet) , you will be provided with a "Seed" which is 64 characters of text that is unique to your wallet. Do not store your seed online (e.g do not screenshot, email or save it in a file) because anyone with the seed can access all accounts on it and take all of your Rai! The reason why it is provided is so that if for any reason you need to recover your account(s) you can do so without the original wallet you created the account on, so keep it safe!
 
Tips & Tricks * Transferring BTC between exchanges can be expensive and relatively fast (think hour(s)), or cheap and slow (think a few days). LTC or ETH transfers are faster, but make sure to check the discrepancy in BTC-LTC or BTC-ETH prices on markets with low volume! * 1 XRB as bought on an exchange is 1 million xrb, aka Rai. 1 Rai = 1024th raw, the smallest units on the RaiBlocks network. * 'Not pocketed' can stay like that indefinitely. If you want to spend the coins, you'll have to sync your wallet and create a 'RECEIVE' block though (this is done by Advanced - Check for receivables in the desktop wallet).
 
Want to try out the instant transactions without any fees? Check out This link
 
Daily update of data.ldb for 1st sync Want to skip the long sync time? Save your seed, check Readme.txt if you are going to use this method to speed up 1st wallet sync! Confirm the checksums/links in the #support channel at https://chat.raiblocks.net/. It's usually posted by SergSW. This link or this slightly newer one will guide you through it, but use the links below for the most recent files.
 
Find the latest updated DB files in the wiki page: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/wiki/index
Make sure to read the readme.txt!!
submitted by Crypto_Jasper to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

FAQ & Daily General Discussion - January 1th, 2018

FAQ below, daily discussion in the comments! /RaiTrade for all price and trading related posts
Welcome!
As only 2 stickied threads are possible, we have decided to combine the "Are you new here" and the daily discussion thread. XRB is attracting more and more people, both veterans and newbies in the cryptoworld. As XRB is quite a bit different than other coins/blockchains, it's normal that a lot of users have (the same) questions. So please, before making a new thread, read this post first and use the search bar! Threads that are created which contain a question to which an answer is available here, will be locked and directed to this post.
 
Guidelines for posting in this thread:
 
Questions, debates, meta issues, etc are all welcome. Breaking news should be posted separately from this thread. Rules:
 
Be respectful to one another. Follow the golden rule. No trolling or shilling.
 
Guidelines for posting new threads:
 
Is your thread something that does not fit in the daily thread or in another 'general' thread? Do you have a question, and it's not in the list below? Do you have exiting news to post? Did you use the search bar first? Good, go ahead :-)
 
The Whitepaper: In logical order, we start with the whitepaper. It contains the complete details about RaiBlocks, including some more technical details. Even if you're not technical, take a quick look at it. It will explain a lot! https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_Whitepaper__English.pdf
 
The FAQs: Now the technical FAQs, a document explaining how it works, how it compares to other coins, ... https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_FAQ.pdf
 
Let's keep a decent overview of other, more practical questions :-)
 
Guide to set up your wallet https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7bw77e/how_to_setup_your_desktop_wallet/
 
How do I buy or store XRB? Check out these guides: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7i0co0/the_definitive_guide_to_buying_and_storing/ https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7iv89b/how_to_buy_xrb_without_waiting_for_a_transaction/
 
My desktop wallet isn't syncing! Do the numbers between the brackets still move? Good. The numbers before the parentheses are the number of blocks the wallet has verified, the numbers between parentheses is the amount of downloaded-but-not-yet-verified blocks. Is the wallet unlocked? Good, it needs to be unlocked to be able to sync. Still nothing? Go to 'accounts' - 'use account'. Still nothing? Close the wallet, reopen it.
 
What is a representative? Ah, so you haven't read the whitepaper haven't you... When conflicting blocks arise, a vote will have to be cast on which block to accept. Since you won't be online 24/7, you can outsource your voting power to a representative, who are online 24/7. They cannot access your funds, and you can change it anytime.
 
What is the incentive to run a node? Apart from helping the network and making it more secure, this user gives a detailed answer: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
My transaction isn't visible in my wallet or it says 'not pocketed' on the block explorer! Is your wallet fully synced? Yes? Good, it needs to be completely synced before it will show your balances. Nothing? Go to "https://raiblocks.net/account/index.php?acc=ADDRESS HERE". Do you see the transaction there (as 'not pocketed')? Good, that means that it's just a matter of showing it in your wallet, the coins are linked to your address already. In your wallet, go to 'Accounts' - 'Use account', 'Back', 'Advanced' - 'Search for receivables'. Did it work? Good. If not, go to 'Advanced' - 'Account explorer', hit refresh. Still nothing? Close/kill the wallet and reopen it. Still nothing? Go to 'Advanced' and change the unit from Mxrb to xrb and back to Mxrb. Stillll nothing? Fine, make a thread!
 
The syncing is sooo slow!! On HDD, it can take a couple days for it to sync. Why? Every block is only 400bytes in size, they all need to be written on your HDD. SSD takes about 12h. Check the bottom of this post for a shortcut if you use HDD (or SSD and have no patience :-) ).
 
My withdrawal from BitGrail/Mercatox isn't working!! BitGrail and Mercatox are having quite some issues, both due to a bug in their RaiBlocks node, and because of being overwelmed. They have to do each withdrawal manually. Log a ticket and have patience! Mercatox support: https://mercatox.com/support BitGrail support: to be added when they're back
 
We need a new exchange & website & ...!! Indeed, large exchange would be super!. But before that, we need a new website, mobile wallets, ... Those are in the make. Don't ask about the new exchanges, no one knows!
 
What is the incentive to run a node? There is no monetary reward, but tread this post/comment! https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
We're limited to 7k TPS, how's that scalable!? The current limitation of 7K TPS is a hardware limitation of writing data to the disk, not a protocol limitation. As hardware improves, so will the TPS limit.
 
Does the receiver account have to be online when I create my send transaction? No, whenever the send transaction goes out, the funds are "not pocketed" by the receiver. The funds are as good as the receivers and cannot be revoked by the sender. "Not pocketed" funds do NOT expire.
 
What are "not pocketed" funds? A transaction consists of a "send" and a "receive" transaction. During the period where a "send" doesn't have its partnering "receive" transaction, the accounts are considered "not pocketed" by the recipient. "Not pocketed" funds are securely the receiver's funds. Once the receiver's wallet comes online, is fully synced, and unlocked, the funds will automatically be signed into their account chain.
 
What are the requirements to run a node? Currently the only real recommendation is to have a fast storage medium, such as an SSD instead of HDD. This is because currently the full node software does a lot of disk I/O for rapidly processing transactions. This may change with future full node versions that better utilize available system RAM and relax disk I/O.
 
What do the numbers at the top of the desktop wallet mean? The numbers will look like: processed (unprocessed downloaded) Where "processed" is the number of downloaded blocks that your node has processed, and "unprocessed downloaded" are blocks that your software has downloaded but not processed yet. To be fully synced, all blocks must be processed. As new transactions are created on the network, they will be downloaded into the "unprocessed" category to be subsequently processed.
 
How can I run a full node? The desktop wallet is already a full node! Just by running it you are helping
 
Can I send funds to my wallet before it is synced? Yes. Funds can be sent to any "xrb_" address, even if they were created in an offline environment. RaiBlocks is exactly the same as ethereum or bitcoin in this sense. The funds will show up when the wallet is fully synced with the network. Make sure to back up your seed!
 
How do I backup my wallet? Just write down your seed and keep it in a safe place. All accounts generated from that seed will be generated again (in order) when you restore that seed.
 
Can I reuse an address? Yes, unlike IOTA you can reuse addresses like in Bitcoin and Ethereum. Please understand the reasoning for this; IOTA does this because it is a drawback to the quantum-proof digital signature algorithm they use. RaiBlocks' current digital signature algorithm is not quantum proof, but the devs have expressed interest in changing to a quantum-proof algortihm as the field matures and quantum computers become a more significant threat to the network.
 
What's up with the units? Currently the ticker XRB on exchanges represents 1 Mxrb (or million xrb). As the name suggests, 1Mxrb = 1000000 xrb. The smallest unit of RaiBlocks is the raw. There are 1024 raw in an xrb, or 1030 raw in an Mxrb/XRB. Whenever people are talking, they are generally talking in XRB or equivalently Mxrb
 
What is the max supply? The max supply is 133,248,290 XRB. For units see the question above. Why this number? Well RaiBlock's value is kept in a uint128 variable (unsigned 128-bit integer). An uint128 has max value (2128)-1, which is approximately 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This was the original number of "raw" in RaiBlocks. RaiBlocks was distributed via a Captcha faucet distribution system; of which 133,248,290 XRB were distributed. Due to some non-technical issues, the faucet distribution was cut short and the remaining quantity was burned. This leaves just 133,248,290 XRB (approximately 133,248,290,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 raw) circulating.
 
Can someone access my funds even if I use a password (desktop wallet) Yes. The password feature of the desktop wallet just encrypts the seed locally on your computer. If anyone gets access to your plaintext (unencrypted seed, the thing we tell you to backup) they have access to your funds. The benefit of the password is that if someone has access to your computer, they don't immediately have access to your raiblocks.
 
Whats a seed? What's a private key? Whats a public key? Any time you set up a Raiblocks address (such as creating a new wallet) , you will be provided with a "Seed" which is 64 characters of text that is unique to your wallet. Do not store your seed online (e.g do not screenshot, email or save it in a file) because anyone with the seed can access all accounts on it and take all of your Rai! The reason why it is provided is so that if for any reason you need to recover your account(s) you can do so without the original wallet you created the account on, so keep it safe!
 
Tips & Tricks * Transferring BTC between exchanges can be expensive and relatively fast (think hour(s)), or cheap and slow (think a few days). LTC or ETH transfers are faster, but make sure to check the discrepancy in BTC-LTC or BTC-ETH prices on markets with low volume! * 1 XRB as bought on an exchange is 1 million xrb, aka Rai. 1 Rai = 1024th raw, the smallest units on the RaiBlocks network. * 'Not pocketed' can stay like that indefinitely. If you want to spend the coins, you'll have to sync your wallet and create a 'RECEIVE' block though (this is done by Advanced - Check for receivables in the desktop wallet).
 
Want to try out the instant transactions without any fees? Check out This link
 
Daily update of data.ldb for 1st sync Want to skip the long sync time? Save your seed, check Readme.txt if you are going to use this method to speed up 1st wallet sync! Confirm the checksums/links in the #support channel at https://chat.raiblocks.net/. It's usually posted by SergSW. This link or this slightly newer one will guide you through it, but use the links below for the most recent files.
 
Find the latest updated DB files in the wiki page: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/wiki/index
Make sure to read the readme.txt!!
submitted by Crypto_Jasper to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

Research on ChainLink / The future might be bright

Research on ChainLink / The future might be bright
I'm a bit skeptical about this project merely because I can't find the real usage of ChainLink and its tech in real life(At the moment) after I've read the white paper. I would be grateful if you my dear reader would like to discuss it. Before I start to review the project I want to clarify why I think the future might be bright and the present time, however, has a numerous problems that must be addressed.
The main problem is The Technology Adoption.
The technology adoption life cycle is a sociological model that describes the adoption or acceptance of a new product or innovation, in our case we can define the Cryptocurrency as the New Product, I hope that I am correct - that at the moment we are on the stage between Innovators and Early Adopters. My point is, so far a lot of people never heard about cryptocurrencies or even about Bitcoin and they haven't any clue why they need tokens or digital currencies, then that lack of education still leads to slow growth of popularization of cryptocurrencies and that requires the time. I don't talk about Venezuela it's a different story, people are terrified of the government and inflation, I talk about stable countries.
In additional, on the stage of early adoption, strategy is a critical part of the business model of any startup, and when customers must pay for a new product via new money aka cryptocurrencies, a number of issues arise for which it will be necessary to have a clear understanding.

https://preview.redd.it/rh978mvaecn21.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a94569b3355258b59e37cd1803b8eae7df91c169
The second problem is high volatile and low liquidity of cryptocurrencies.
This problem affects almost on the whole sector. Of course, there are a lot of big and small online exchanges but all of them request KYC verification procedure which a potential barrier to the use cryptocurrencies. How many potential clients, StartUp can lose if it accepts only cryptocurrencies as payment method? If crypto payments would as one of variants with solid discount to cover exchanges fees of customers only then StartUp will greatly benefit from the increasing its clients' base.
For business. In the context of the high volatile of cryptocurrencies, the using of tokens can bring some problems for companies. For instance, I want to offer data feed to customers, first of all I think about the pricing structure for users, so if the token price will rise on 10% then I must force down the price in USD/EUFiat immediately, after then I need to exchange received tokens for USD or EUR or my national currency, because I pay taxes and my government doesn't accept cryptocurrencies. If even this process will be automatically, I will still pay fees on every stage and every fee is my potential profit.
White Paper.
White Paper were well written and required minimal tech skills to understand what to expect of such a new vision of the smart-contracts. So, this time, we're being offered to assess the future where the ChainLink provides algorithms on-chain and off-chain for B2B, B2C, C2C based on decentralized blockchain.
The on-chain algorithm.
"The ChainLink system proposes the use of a simple protocol involving threshold signatures. Such signatures can be realized using any of a number of signature schemes, but are especially simple to implement using Schnorr signature."
This algorithm is secure enough and include a rational steps for that. That means a confidentiality of a request to trustworthy data source will be protected and can't be used or revealed by compromised node.
"in order to decrypt an encrypted message or to sign a message, several parties (more than some threshold number) must cooperate in the decryption or signature protocol. The message is encrypted using a public key and the corresponding private key is shared among the participating parties." Wikipedia.
And furthermore, if you worry that single data source can be compromise by unauthorized persons than you can obtain data from several sources, also it effectively prevents the possibility of incorrect answer. But the off-chain algorithm is more interesting.
The off-chain algorithm.
Very interesting technology which can be used by government(as I think) for secure data transmission over the internet, so I recommend you to read how the Intel SGX works, the official site of Town Crier and then re-read the white paper. As written on the main page of Town Crier: "The Town Crier system leverages trusted hardware (Intel SGX) to provide a strong guarantee that data comes from an existing, trustworthy source. It also provides confidentiality, enabling smart contracts to support confidential queries and even manage user credentials." All three sources will get you more helpful information than I can write here. Here is nothing more I can think of to say, because this is the long-term technical strategy for ChainLink and it's still on development.
I almost agree to pay for a request. or Where is my profit?
So let's take some examples.
Shipping. My business model offers cheap shipping of parcels also you can track its geographical coordinates, the similar as you would track your Uber ride. No one on the market can't offer the analogous option, so I have the market where I can dictate the rules, then I notice that with the ChainLink platform, my business model can reduce significant cost on the prices of shipping if my customers will pay for each request of coordinates. Wow! My company will receive (If I correctly understand from the white paper, when user pay fees for the request, this fees divided on several parts, where my service receive one part and another one sends to the node or pool) extra fees from my customers. But let's back to customers, if my App will use the ChainLink platform then my users must pay via $Link token to know where are their parcels.
And here we must back to the major problem "The Technology Adoption", I know that my potential customer prefers to make an online payment via VISA or Master card instead of cryptocurrencies, in the result my potential customers will encounter difficulties like where to buy Bitcoin or Ethereum, how to exchange BTC or ETH for $Link token (The problem number two) and others small problems, don't forget about exchanges fees. And what do you think whose services they will choose? DHL, FedEx, UPS or maybe my company? Okay, you can say, at the moment you can use Bitcoin ATM, and then transfer cryptocurrency to the Enjin Wallet, where is easily exchange Bitcoin or Ethereum for any ERC20 token include $Link token. BUT a lot of people don't know about that and this is a problem. As well, my method incurs some sort of fees too.
Market data. For example, my company have exclusive rights on real-time stocks market data, that I sell in my App, and I can offer a price that's lower than the competition's. Well that's good for my business, BUT my clients want to obtain data instantaneously and here I can't offer them high speed of answers because API of my App works on the ChainLink platform. You can create and test your own smart-contract here to calculate the time from request to answer.
With all these issues will face every StartUp which want to work on the ChainLink platform, even if StartUp can offer something new to us, but we as users must pay for service through $Link token then this StartUp will lose a significant proportion of customers. Or StartAp must offer super exclusive data to create significant value for its client base.
In conclusion.
I don't want to blame the ChainLink platform, I want to say this project offers us interesting possibilities, but it depends on the circumstances of nowadays. In my view, when I can buy cryptocurrencies just as easily as ice-cream, then all things will depend on what can I offer you, to exchange my exclusive data for your $Link token.
And Finally, I would like to clarify that all these problems above are universal, but the recent projects which I reviewed have one major bonus, they have a working platform/site with loyal customers. On the other side the ChainLink platform, it has a good idea too, but the area of its usage hasn't the mainstream user, that leads to slow adoption of technology and higher levels of frustration for investors.
PS.
It's not a financial advice.
I haven't any investments in $LINK.
I continue to follow /ChainLink.
I want to apologize for possible errors bc english is not my native language.
submitted by Fanfan_la_Tulip to SAFU [link] [comments]

FAQ & Daily General Discussion - January 5th, 2018

FAQ below, daily discussion in the comments! /RaiTrade for all price and trading related posts
Welcome!
As only 2 stickied threads are possible, we have decided to combine the "Are you new here" and the daily discussion thread. XRB is attracting more and more people, both veterans and newbies in the cryptoworld. As XRB is quite a bit different than other coins/blockchains, it's normal that a lot of users have (the same) questions. So please, before making a new thread, read this post first and use the search bar! Threads that are created which contain a question to which an answer is available here, will be locked and directed to this post.
 
Guidelines for posting in this thread:
 
Questions, debates, meta issues, etc are all welcome. Breaking news should be posted separately from this thread. Rules:
 
Be respectful to one another. Follow the golden rule. No trolling or shilling.
 
Guidelines for posting new threads:
 
Is your thread something that does not fit in the daily thread or in another 'general' thread? Do you have a question, and it's not in the list below? Do you have exiting news to post? Did you use the search bar first? Good, go ahead :-)
 
The Whitepaper: In logical order, we start with the whitepaper. It contains the complete details about RaiBlocks, including some more technical details. Even if you're not technical, take a quick look at it. It will explain a lot! https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_Whitepaper__English.pdf
 
The FAQs: Now the technical FAQs, a document explaining how it works, how it compares to other coins, ... https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_FAQ.pdf
 
Let's keep a decent overview of other, more practical questions :-)
 
Guide to set up your wallet https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7bw77e/how_to_setup_your_desktop_wallet/
 
How do I buy or store XRB? Check out these guides: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7i0co0/the_definitive_guide_to_buying_and_storing/ https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7iv89b/how_to_buy_xrb_without_waiting_for_a_transaction/
 
My desktop wallet isn't syncing! Do the numbers between the brackets still move? Good. The numbers before the parentheses are the number of blocks the wallet has verified, the numbers between parentheses is the amount of downloaded-but-not-yet-verified blocks. Is the wallet unlocked? Good, it needs to be unlocked to be able to sync. Still nothing? Go to 'accounts' - 'use account'. Still nothing? Close the wallet, reopen it.
 
What is a representative? Ah, so you haven't read the whitepaper haven't you... When conflicting blocks arise, a vote will have to be cast on which block to accept. Since you won't be online 24/7, you can outsource your voting power to a representative, who are online 24/7. They cannot access your funds, and you can change it anytime.
 
What is the incentive to run a node? Apart from helping the network and making it more secure, this user gives a detailed answer: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
My transaction isn't visible in my wallet or it says 'not pocketed' on the block explorer! Is your wallet fully synced? Yes? Good, it needs to be completely synced before it will show your balances. Nothing? Go to "https://raiblocks.net/account/index.php?acc=ADDRESS HERE". Do you see the transaction there (as 'not pocketed')? Good, that means that it's just a matter of showing it in your wallet, the coins are linked to your address already. In your wallet, go to 'Accounts' - 'Use account', 'Back', 'Advanced' - 'Search for receivables'. Did it work? Good. If not, go to 'Advanced' - 'Account explorer', hit refresh. Still nothing? Close/kill the wallet and reopen it. Still nothing? Go to 'Advanced' and change the unit from Mxrb to xrb and back to Mxrb. Stillll nothing? Fine, make a thread!
 
The syncing is sooo slow!! On HDD, it can take a couple days for it to sync. Why? Every block is only 400bytes in size, they all need to be written on your HDD. SSD takes about 12h. Check the bottom of this post for a shortcut if you use HDD (or SSD and have no patience :-) ).
 
My withdrawal from BitGrail/Mercatox isn't working!! BitGrail and Mercatox are having quite some issues, both due to a bug in their RaiBlocks node, and because of being overwelmed. They have to do each withdrawal manually. Log a ticket and have patience! Mercatox support: https://mercatox.com/support BitGrail support: to be added when they're back
 
We need a new exchange & website & ...!! Indeed, large exchange would be super!. But before that, we need a new website, mobile wallets, ... Those are in the make. Don't ask about the new exchanges, no one knows!
 
What is the incentive to run a node? There is no monetary reward, but tread this post/comment! https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
We're limited to 7k TPS, how's that scalable!? The current limitation of 7K TPS is a hardware limitation of writing data to the disk, not a protocol limitation. As hardware improves, so will the TPS limit.
 
Does the receiver account have to be online when I create my send transaction? No, whenever the send transaction goes out, the funds are "not pocketed" by the receiver. The funds are as good as the receivers and cannot be revoked by the sender. "Not pocketed" funds do NOT expire.
 
What are "not pocketed" funds? A transaction consists of a "send" and a "receive" transaction. During the period where a "send" doesn't have its partnering "receive" transaction, the accounts are considered "not pocketed" by the recipient. "Not pocketed" funds are securely the receiver's funds. Once the receiver's wallet comes online, is fully synced, and unlocked, the funds will automatically be signed into their account chain.
 
What are the requirements to run a node? Currently the only real recommendation is to have a fast storage medium, such as an SSD instead of HDD. This is because currently the full node software does a lot of disk I/O for rapidly processing transactions. This may change with future full node versions that better utilize available system RAM and relax disk I/O.
 
What do the numbers at the top of the desktop wallet mean? The numbers will look like: processed (unprocessed downloaded) Where "processed" is the number of downloaded blocks that your node has processed, and "unprocessed downloaded" are blocks that your software has downloaded but not processed yet. To be fully synced, all blocks must be processed. As new transactions are created on the network, they will be downloaded into the "unprocessed" category to be subsequently processed.
 
How can I run a full node? The desktop wallet is already a full node! Just by running it you are helping
 
Can I send funds to my wallet before it is synced? Yes. Funds can be sent to any "xrb_" address, even if they were created in an offline environment. RaiBlocks is exactly the same as ethereum or bitcoin in this sense. The funds will show up when the wallet is fully synced with the network. Make sure to back up your seed!
 
How do I backup my wallet? Just write down your seed and keep it in a safe place. All accounts generated from that seed will be generated again (in order) when you restore that seed.
 
Can I reuse an address? Yes, unlike IOTA you can reuse addresses like in Bitcoin and Ethereum. Please understand the reasoning for this; IOTA does this because it is a drawback to the quantum-proof digital signature algorithm they use. RaiBlocks' current digital signature algorithm is not quantum proof, but the devs have expressed interest in changing to a quantum-proof algortihm as the field matures and quantum computers become a more significant threat to the network.
 
What's up with the units? Currently the ticker XRB on exchanges represents 1 Mxrb (or million xrb). As the name suggests, 1Mxrb = 1000000 xrb. The smallest unit of RaiBlocks is the raw. There are 1024 raw in an xrb, or 1030 raw in an Mxrb/XRB. Whenever people are talking, they are generally talking in XRB or equivalently Mxrb
 
What is the max supply? The max supply is 133,248,290 XRB. For units see the question above. Why this number? Well RaiBlock's value is kept in a uint128 variable (unsigned 128-bit integer). An uint128 has max value (2128)-1, which is approximately 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This was the original number of "raw" in RaiBlocks. RaiBlocks was distributed via a Captcha faucet distribution system; of which 133,248,290 XRB were distributed. Due to some non-technical issues, the faucet distribution was cut short and the remaining quantity was burned. This leaves just 133,248,290 XRB (approximately 133,248,290,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 raw) circulating.
 
Can someone access my funds even if I use a password (desktop wallet) Yes. The password feature of the desktop wallet just encrypts the seed locally on your computer. If anyone gets access to your plaintext (unencrypted seed, the thing we tell you to backup) they have access to your funds. The benefit of the password is that if someone has access to your computer, they don't immediately have access to your raiblocks.
 
Whats a seed? What's a private key? Whats a public key? Any time you set up a Raiblocks address (such as creating a new wallet) , you will be provided with a "Seed" which is 64 characters of text that is unique to your wallet. Do not store your seed online (e.g do not screenshot, email or save it in a file) because anyone with the seed can access all accounts on it and take all of your Rai! The reason why it is provided is so that if for any reason you need to recover your account(s) you can do so without the original wallet you created the account on, so keep it safe!
 
Tips & Tricks * Transferring BTC between exchanges can be expensive and relatively fast (think hour(s)), or cheap and slow (think a few days). LTC or ETH transfers are faster, but make sure to check the discrepancy in BTC-LTC or BTC-ETH prices on markets with low volume! * 1 XRB as bought on an exchange is 1 million xrb, aka Rai. 1 Rai = 1024th raw, the smallest units on the RaiBlocks network. * 'Not pocketed' can stay like that indefinitely. If you want to spend the coins, you'll have to sync your wallet and create a 'RECEIVE' block though (this is done by Advanced - Check for receivables in the desktop wallet).
 
Want to try out the instant transactions without any fees? Check out This link
 
Daily update of data.ldb for 1st sync Want to skip the long sync time? Save your seed, check Readme.txt if you are going to use this method to speed up 1st wallet sync! Confirm the checksums/links in the #support channel at https://chat.raiblocks.net/. It's usually posted by SergSW. This link or this slightly newer one will guide you through it, but use the links below for the most recent files.
 
Find the latest updated DB files in the wiki page: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/wiki/index
Make sure to read the readme.txt!!
submitted by Crypto_Jasper to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Needs A Miracle... Is This It? Will Bitcoin Fall Further? Advanced Bitcoin Scripting -- Part 1: Transactions & Multisig Bitcoin To Us Dollar - YouTube Bitcoin Q&A: How to avoid re-creating systems of control

Bitcoins are one of the largest electronic currencies currently being traded. The websites Bitcoin and WeUseCoins both have extensive FAQs that detail how someone can mine, sell or buy bitcoins. Bitcoin is a digital currency (also called crypto-currency) that is not backed by any country's central bank or government. Bitcoins can be traded for goods or services with vendors who accept Bitcoins as payment. In English: The program takes the encrypted solution and the key to decrypt it, and outputs the encrypted solution, the hash of the decryption key, and the result of running the program on the solution. I convert that program into a zero knowledge proof. Externally to Bitcoin I tell you Ex,Hk,Y and then prove that I executed the program faithfully. You then form a Bitcoin payment which ... The node side of Bitcoin Core treats wallet transactions as any other transaction. They aren't treated any differently from transactions received over the network. So once the transaction is added to the node's mempool, it will be broadcast to connected nodes in the same way that any other transaction would be relayed. English; limit my search to r/Bitcoin. use the following search parameters to narrow your results: subreddit:subreddit find submissions in "subreddit" author:username find submissions by "username" site:example.com find submissions from "example.com" url:text search for "text" in url selftext:text search for "text" in self post contents self:yes (or self:no) include (or exclude) self posts ...

[index] [40946] [4648] [43239] [49539] [11284] [26521] [24661] [46376] [15637] [14025]

Bitcoin Needs A Miracle... Is This It?

This is the first part of a more technical talk where Andreas explores Bitcoin script, with examples from the 2nd edition of Mastering Bitcoin, focusing on t... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue Queue Get bitcoins free now https://7blockchain.net bitsler script 2018 bitsler script october script bitcoin bitsler free bitcoin generator free bitcoin games fre... He is the author of two books: “Mastering Bitcoin,” published by O’Reilly Media and considered the best technical guide to bitcoin; “The Internet of Money,” a book about why bitcoin matters. Bitcoin At $1 Million By 2020 Is Still Possible And Might Be A Discount Says James Altucher - Duration: 13:56. Kitco NEWS 203,113 views

#