#1 Bitcoin Halving 2024 Countdown & Date ETA (BTC Clock)

Always bet on RED

[link]

What will happen to Bitcoin after last block calculated?

So? If a Day of Last Bitcoin Block came - how transactions will be handled?
submitted by gong to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

12.7 PATCH NOTES

Dear Escapers!
We are glad to present you the preliminary patch notes for the 0.12.7 patch!
---
Added:
---
• Customs expansion (expansion of industrial area, construction site, added many new explorable buildings, stationary weapons, new location for Reshala spawn etc.)
• Added new scav boss - Sanitar.
A former doctor, he worked in the health resort "Lazurny bereg", and before that in the TerraGroup laboratory. After the events that happened in Tarkov, he gathered a gang with former colleagues and operates on the "Shoreline". Actively uses professional skills in combat, quickly healing himself and the gang members. He uses various stimulants and medications, including those of his own production. He can quickly perform surgery by pulling out a bullet or applying a tourniquet on the field. Sometimes he is loyal to the Scavs and can leave a couple of first-aid kits or other medical supplies for his own group members on location
• New quests on Shoreline
• System for reporting suspicious players, unacceptable nicknames and game bugs abusers (on the post-match screen)
Improved AI behavior:
• Bots can pick up items now
• Improved AI behavior when they see bodies
• Bots now can pick up a second firearm from bodies
• AI now can greet each other or player scavs, showing their peaceful intentions
• Bots will eat\drink while in peaceful mode
• AI will perform a mag check when in peaceful mode
• Bots can check someone for friend or foe by aiming at him for some time, if they’re not sure of one’s intentions
• Bots will sprint while patrolling if they consider the spot being dangerous
• AI will be able to storm the player as a group, if he’s holding position and attacking them
• AI will try to avoid dangerous places
---
New weapons:
---
• FN GL40 Grenade launcher
• Mossberg 590A1 Shotgun
---
New ammo:
---
• .366 AP-M
• .45 ACP Hydr-Shock
• 9x19 mm QuakeMaker
• 9x19 mm 7N31
• .45 ACP Lasermatch FMJ
• .45 ACP AP
• 7.62x51 mm M993
• 40x46 мм M381 HE
• 40x46 мм M386 HE
• 40x46 мм M406 HE
• 40x46 мм M433 HEDP
• 40x46 мм M441 HE
• 40x46 мм M576 buckshot
---
Added new stimulants:
---
• 3-(b-TG)
• L1 (Noradrenaline)
• P22 (Specimen 22)
• AHF1-M
• Meldonin
• "Obdolbos" cocktail
• M.U.L.E
• Added an additional icon for the network connection status in case of high packet loss
• In the container slots window, the container tag is now displayed in the header
---
Iteration of improving and reworking the skill system:
---
New skill "Surgery"
• Reduces HP penalty for surgery
• Improved surgery speed
• (Elite) No HP penalty for the restored body part
• (Elite) Maximum increase in the speed of surgery
New skill "Aim drills"
• Increase of the aiming speed
• Decrease the volume of aiming
• (Elite) No hand shaking at any stamina value, first 2 seconds after aiming
• (Elite) Reduced hands shaking during tremor and fracture, the first 2 seconds after aiming
Rework of the “Strength” skill
• Increase all weight limits
• Increase the speed of the sprint
• Increase the jump height
• Increase the strength of the grenade throw
• Increase the strength of a melee attack
• (Elite) The weight does not take into account the weapons on the sling and on the back
• (Elite) Melee attack can be stronger than usual
Rework of the "Endurance" skill
• Increased feet stamina
• Reduced stamina consumption for jumping
• Increased holding breath time when ads
• Increased the speed of breath recovery
• (Elite) Maximum increase in breathing recovery rate
• (Elite) Breathing is no longer dependent on energy
• (Elite) Increased stamina reserve
Various fixes in old skills
• Added 5 HP to the health of “Chest” zone (from 80 to 85)
---
Optimization:
---
• Optimized the rendering of decals
• Fixed freezes that happened when the sound of thunder or the sound of grenades exploding was played
• Optimized the performance of the game server
• Fixed an issue with killing the boss of a group of raiders who appeared on the scene after interacting with the trigger was leading to errors on the server
• Minor optimizations on the first shot or hit
• Optimization of hideout sounds
• Fixes of errors that could potentially lead to different freezes
---
Fixed:
---
• Iteration of fixes and corrections in UI
• Bug with the PostFX menu that remains on the screen after closing the settings
• Bug playing the sound of contusion if the sound is turned off in the settings
• Bug of jerky animation of shooting weapons in the Hideout shooting range
• The passage of raiders on the laboratory through the doors
• A bug that allowed you to quickly move when constantly tapping the "Run" button when overweight
• AS VAL with the handle adapter "Rotor 43" is now impossible to fold
• Inability to exit the location via the paid exit “Car”, if you reconnect at the start of the exfil timer
• Bug with throwing away the magazine when reloading the weapon via the context menu
• Error 228 when receiving items from an expired email
• Formulas for calculating prices for items with its resource and its commissions
• After the reconnect, the equipment that was not searched become searched
• The sound of the visor on/off remained at one point, and does not follow the character
• Bug that wouldn't block buttons on the bottom panel after reconnecting as a Scav
• Interface block if you go to the “Map” screen without a map
• Bug when the "Receive all" button opened only the first and last message with items
• Various bugs with switching the sound from “outdoor " to "indoor", and back, when reconnecting
• Bug of not blocking an item after it was added to the merchant's sales table
• Cartridges from packs of cartridges found in raid now have the status " found in the raid”
• Error when studying items from the scav box
• Fixes in the flea Market
• The search will be updated if you delete and add an item to the wish list
• Loss of a player's nickname and rating from the offer line after applying filters
• The “search by item" option now resets the selected filters
• Bug displaying the loading spinner on top of the list of offers
• The mount without the “Found in raid" label ceased to be semitransparent (blocked) in the selection of the item for the offer, if you put and remove the mod on it
• Bug when the merchant's avatar was flattened
• Incorrect tag behavior on marked items for a flea market offer if you select multiple items from the container, closing and opening the container
• Horizontal scrollbar on the product sales screen
• Bug when the player couldn't put 2 identical weapons on the flea market if one of them was included in the starter kit for pre-order
• Error 1508 - You send bad items- when putting an empty pack of cartridges on a flea Market
• Bug, when for buying through a flea market goods from npc merchants needed items found in raid
Fixed in weapon presets
• Displaying the indicator “you have mods to build” when there are no mods for the build in the stash
• Bug when the build could have been built with the wrong mod that was not in the preset
• Weapon disassembly bug if you build the same preset twice with the same weapon
• Ability to select items that are blocked for purchase, via the presets by clicking the button “Select all”
• Packs of items are no longer displayed in the purchase lists of preset mods
• The purchase lists of presets no longer display items the player's own offers
• Added an error about lack of space when purchasing preset mods
• Bug when opening presets through the lower panel that caused the game client to freeze
Fixed in the hideout
• Various fixes in the bitcoin farm
• White authorization screen if you improve the pre-order version while in the hideout
• Bug when it was possible to install a filter with zero resource in the “Water collector” and it could not be uninstalled
• Calculation of fuel consumption time in the “Generator " zone
• Bug duplicating the canister icon, when selecting a canister, in the “Generator" zone
• Various bugs in group chat
• Bugs with the discharge of weapons in the stash
• Incorrect position of the fire mod pin and the turn of the barrel of the PPSH
• Visual bug for displaying a zero bonus in the base level zones in the Hideout
• Visual bug with the availability of time selection before the raid on the Laboratory screen
• A bug where the player could spawn outside the location
• Spamming error NullReferenceException: MuzzleManager
• An error that occurs every time after treatment or getting a fracture
• "Failed to create device file" error that occurs during client downtime
• Errors when assigning voice commands
• Spamming error when a large number of bots are active in the offline mode
• Various errors while loading in raid
• Various bugs and issues with Customs location
• Various bugs and improvements related to AI
• Fixed a bug when bots didn't follow a grenade throw with a voiceline
• Fixed a handful of bugs related to bots getting stuck
• Fixed a bug where a Gluhar would not react to a killed in the head ally
• Fixed a bug when bots tried to heal a blacked out body part
• Bots are now able to treat debuffs on blacked out body parts again
• Fixed a handful of bugs with bots knocking out doors
• Other AI related bug fixes and improvements
• Various localization fixes and improvements
• Other minor bugs and issues
---
Changed:
---
• Now it is possible to examine items from the construction requirements screen in the Hideout
• Added displaying the time before the bleeding effect disappears in the stash
• Now if you are not matched to the raid within 45 minutes, the search will be canceled
• Updated SV-98 animation, hold, new animations when entering and exiting a sprint, new hold in the menu and on the loading screen
• Updated PPSH animation, hold, and new animations when entering and exiting a sprint
submitted by lordwerneo to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

More fun with OP_HODL (CheckLockTimeVerify)

Last week I wrote a post with a script to create a HODL address. A HODL address is a UTXO that cannot be spent until a certain epoch time or blocktime. It can be used to secure funds in a will or trust that has a designated maturity date. Or you may have some other reason to lock the funds, the point is that the UTXO can be physically verified to be funded, and under an unbreakable timelock.
I've liked the feature but have been frustrated that there is limited HW and SW wallet support for it presently. My previous post walked through how to make a segwit HODL UTXO, this post will detail how to make a BIP16 legacy P2SH HODL UTXO.
Similar to last week, I wrote a bitcoinlib script to do it, but this week I also went through the steps to do it on the CoinBin wallet. CoinBin is a JavaScript wallet that can (and should) be run locally. CoinBin, or raw python (bitcoinlib) are the only ways I currently know of to spend a HODL address.
Here's the basic rundown to create and fund your UTXO with CoinBin
  1. Use either Electrum or Bitcoin Core to collect a Bitcoin public and private key.
  2. Run the CoinBin app either locally (best option) or through the live site
  3. Choose New -> Time Locked Address
  4. Enter the public key (from #1) and either a block height or timestamp for your lock
  5. Hit Submit and record the address and redeem script
  6. Ensure you have accurately recorded everything in step #1 and step #5
  7. Send funds to the address recorded in step 5 as you normally would.
Here's the basic rundown on how to spend your UTXO with CoinBin
  1. Use either Electrum or Bitcoin Core to collect an address to spend your UTXO to
  2. Run the CoinBin app either locally (best option) or through the live site
  3. Choose New -> Transaction
  4. Enter the Redeem Script you copied in the creation process (step #5), then Load
  5. After a few minutes it should automatically load your UTXO into the form
  6. Enter the address you want to spend your UTXO to and adjust the output amount for fees
  7. Hit the question mark next to Transaction Fee for the calculator
  8. Hit Submit when satisfied and record the unsigned transaction data
  9. Select Sign on the top nav bar to begin the signing operation
  10. Enter your private key from the creation process (step #1) and the unsigned TXN
  11. Select Submit to produce the signed TXN
  12. Broadcast the signed TXN with either Electrum or Bitcoin Core
Note, if you try to broadcast before the UTXO's timelock expires, you will get a terse not final error in either Electrum or Core.
For Extra Credit, CoinBin can also be run against Testnet, but to do so you have to unhide the settings element, manually code the TXN input script and manually code the TXN nLockTime to sync with your HODL address.
Here are a Testnet and Mainnet HODL spend TXN I created in CoinBin * Mainnet: txid ea6a1...79d53 * Testnet: txid a8110...adc93
submitted by brianddk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Cash: use it or lose it!

Is this the last decade of cash?

The corona pandemic is not helping. Belgian media is picking up the Australian news about the coronavirus found active 28 days on banknotes, without understanding that the 28 days is on the Australian polymer and paper banknotes, while Euro banknotes are made of cotton fibers on which the coronavirus gets inactive rather quick. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-04-euro-banknotes-safe-coronavirus-ecb.html
You are touching so much in shops, including the pay terminals everyone is touching, that cash won't add much risk.

Until this year, I used to not care, and pay everything electronically.

But in March I became the victim of an identity theft. My bank account was frozen, my bank cards and payment app blocked. Opening new bank accounts or credit cards was impossible due to being on a blacklist.

My employer could not pay my salary in cash. For most professions this is forbidden by law since 2016.

Friends lent me cash. But I discovered cash was refused at supermarkets, shops, public transport, parkings, fuel stations, hospital, physiotherapist, online webshops, Uber, Deliveroo, etc. Sometimes because of corona anxiety, but often already from before 2020.

Prepaid cards could be a nice solution. But even while they are debit cards, in Belgium they seem to be refused where credit cards are refused, since they are Visa or Mastercards cards. These are refused in many Belgium places, since merchants don't like the higher costs. Not many prepaid cards allow charging with cash. And their availability is in recent decline: this year at least the following prepaid cards stopped or are announced to stop: Carrefour prepaid Flex card, BNP and Hello. The decline might be due to new very strict EU anti-money laundering laws. The anonymous prepaid cards (and generic gift cards) are now restricted to 100 euro maximum recharge in their lifetime and 50 euro payments.

Cryptocurrencies are also in theory a nice solution. But their acceptance in Belgium is extremely limited. Thanks to Takeaway accepting bitcoin, I could order delivery from many local snack restaurants.
But I discovered that bitcoin and most other cryptocurrencies, while having an "anonymous" reputation, are actually only pseudonymous and extremely open and transparent: for every transaction the origin address, destination address, amount and timestamp are recorded for eternity in a public ledger for everyone open to consult. When I buy something, the merchant can see how many coins I have in my wallet address. Buying, spending or selling coins are activities that can get your name connected to your addresses. Developers try to solve this privacy issue, but I'm afraid the war on anonymity (related to the war on cash) will crush that before cryptocurrency payments become popular.

So, my identity theft experience has awakened me: sharing your personal details in so many places caries a lot of danger. Think about it: while the law became more strict, there are still many (online) shops and restaurants taking knowledge of your credit card number, expiry date, CCV and your name. That's still enough information to do fraudulent payments in many places.

The cashless society is a surveillance society, with every payment traced. And it creates a lot of dependencies: electricity, internet, and permission by the banking and payment system. Once you are on a blacklist, even if you did nothing wrong, but somebody pretended to be you and did fraudulent payments, you are screwed for at least months.

So, now that I'm finally off the blacklist, I opened several bank accounts. That will not help for all issues, but still: having only 1 bank is really dangerous.

And from now on I pay everything possible with cash. Not just to keep my personal details safe, but also to keep the cash usage statistics high. Did you notice that the financial sector is regulary reporting the cash withdrawals decline? They report both the total amount withdrawn and the number of withdrawals.

I learned that the bank and payment processors are fighting a war on cash and they are actively lobbying the government for a reduction of the cash payment limit to 50 euro. Yes, an insane fifty euro! The banks are lazy about cash and want to impose negative rent without risking a bankrun. No cash is no bankrun. The payment processors just love the percentage they get from every payment.

Currently the acceptance of euro banknotes and coins for debts is compulsory by European law. But many merchants violated the law and we had at least one Belgian minister ignoring the enforcement. See e.g. this article from 2019: https://www.bruzz.be/samenleving/no-cash-doet-intrede-brusselse-horeca-2019-05-10.
The law has exceptions, e.g. for security reasons such as a pandemic. After the pandemic I will try to report all cash refusing merchants.
Merchants that refuse to accept cash payments can be reported at https://meldpunt.belgie.be or https://pointdecontact.belgique.be/. But I guess it is better to wait until after the pandemic.

We need to defend the right to use cash. And a crucial action to avoid the end of cash is to keep using it as much as possible.

Every time you pay with a bank card or app, you contribute to a cashless future where:
Use cash or lose it!
submitted by piabxl to belgium [link] [comments]

Patch .12.7 (Today 14:00 MSK) - Notes & Discussion

Edit: For those on New Reddit, we're trying out the "Event" style post, so you should see a start time listed above this post in your local timezone. It seems like it's a hour ahead for me, for whatever reason. Let me know if it works for you.
The installation of the patch has finished!
The installation of the patch has begun!
Regards to CptQ for this count-down timer for those not on new.reddit:
#Countdown Timer

Per the Official EFT Discord:

Tomorrow [The 27th], at 14.00 Moscow time we plan to start installation of the update 0.12.7. The game will be stopped. Installation of the update will take approximately 4 hours, but can be extended if necessary.
Twitter Post: https://twitter.com/bstategames/status/1287475159432081408
Check out the latest Raid Episode (#4): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2u8hkw2UTy4
Help our Wiki Editors out: https://old.reddit.com/EscapefromTarkov/comments/hyftjg/your_patchly_wiki_post/

FAQ:

Below are the patch notes for .12.7 :

___
Patch 0.12.7:
Added:
New ammo:
Added new stimulants:

Optimization:
Fixed:
Fixed in weapon presets
Fixed in the hideout
Changed:
submitted by Fwopp to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

Gridcoin 5.0.0.0-Mandatory "Fern" Release

https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/5.0.0.0
Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that.
Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap.
We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout.
Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.

Highlights

Protocol

Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now.
Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date.
The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.

GUI

Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.

Blockchain

The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use.
There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all.
I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures.
The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!

Summary Changelog

Accrual

Changed

Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.

Removed

Beacons

Added

Changed

Removed

Unaltered

As a reminder:

Superblocks

Added

Changed

Removed

Voting

Added

Changed

Removed

Detailed Changelog

[5.0.0.0] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"

Added

Changed

Removed

Fixed

submitted by jamescowens to gridcoin [link] [comments]

Earn 51-$171 using my referral codes to learn about crypto through Coinbase! Plus! if we verify you used my links, ill give you an additional $5 in for the links you completed. Payout is instant upon completion, no gimmicks!

Make $51+ to Learn about crypto on Coinbase! Up to $150 using my Bonus! [ID Verify Needed]
(If you want to learn a little about bitcoin and crypto, read the whole thing, if you just want the bonus, only read the next 15-20 sentences)
First use this one for your signup: https://www.coinbase.com/join/schaib_sl Once you signed up and verified identity use the links below!
  1. Compound: https://www.coinbase.com/earn/compound/lesson/5
  2. EOS: https://coinbase.com/earn/eos/invite/h9zd74pc
  3. XLM: https://coinbase.com/earn/xlm/invite/0nb8vckp
Altogether there are 6 different lessons, each takes like 5-10 mins with a quiz at the end. Only 3 of them i will get rewarded for though. You will also get an extra $10 for each completed for my referral + $51 from all 6 quizzes and also another $120 if you get 4 people to do the quizzes. They are really quick, especially if already have an account. Also you can look up the answers for each one on google so you dont need to sit through them, be even quicker. Please complete the 3 i sent the links with to the end so we get 10$ reward extra. As soon as you finish they send you the coins into coin base account. Once they are in your account you can sell them instantly for $$, and transfer to your bank account, OR you can keep them on your account. EOS, and COMP have been doing really well, so they might be worth keeping. This is just a really good promotion, probably one of the better i’ve see. Its easy AF, quick, and the reward is really good. If you don’t know anything about crypto, i highly suggest you learn. It’s still very early and its growing super quick. cryptocurrency has gained a ton of attention in the past couple years and is actually starting to become a real actual currencies (already is, but according to our governments) many different types of crypto is starting to become accepted in a bunch of stores, realtors are taking as payment for a house, and colleges are even accepting as tuition. I started researching bitcoin a short amount of time after Satoshi Nakamoto released it (2009) and bought my first few in 2013 at 15$!! From early 2013 the price was about $11 USD and at the end of 2017, $20,000. But they fell and recovered as the stock market does. But the 24-hour trading Volume today, in 2020 is is INSANE ($20,690,383,231) with an even crazier market cap of $209,783,036,693, which by the middle-end of next month should reach $210 billion, possibly sooner. Its just a really smart investment, buy a little over time. Some analysts are predicting that BTC could reach anywhere from $100k to $1,000,000 for BTC in the next few years. Im not sure exactly where i would name the price in 5 years, but know there is only a limited supply of BTC. They are mined (basically just means that the transactions and blocks on the ledger or blockchain are verified) by sophisticated pieces of hardware called ASIIC miners, or some even use GPU, and CPU in expensive computers. Although CPU mining can be very inefficient anymore as the mathematical calculations and problems the miners need to solve get more and more complicated over time. This, the limited supply, the increasing interest, usability, and need for blockchain technology all add the the idea of BTC reaching such incredibly high futures. Their is a total of 20,999,976 bitcoin and that is it. With a total of 18,517,418.75 in circulation. The last BTC is estimated to be 2140. Big difference from the 18.5M mined in 10 years, right? Thats because of the halving. Anyway, I’m sure you have heard some things about BTC, probably from the media, and if it was, it probably wasn’t good. You probably heard that people buy illegal dangerous stuff off of the “Darknet” and that its completely untraceable. Or that money can be laundered through BTC. But that is hardly partly true for BTC and other cryptocurrencies, and completely true for the USD. While the blockchain doesn’t include any personal information connected to wallets (unless you want it there, or you have the wallet through a service that makes you use personal information, which many services are doing), all transactions can still be tracked and seen by anyone who has an internet connection at https://www.blockchain.com. So if the identity of one of the wallet addresses is known, it would be easier to figure the other out. But for paper, money that cannot be said... completely untraceable, has been prone to money laundering since it’s inception, can be used to purchase various drugs—hookers, guns, dynamite, and even politicians... since its inception, without a trace. The reason not just bitcoin, but i think even more exciting, is just blockchain technology and a host of things that are coming with it. It can be used for tons of things, software and can be built directly into blockchains, they can hold and process data at enormous speeds, while being extremely, extremely secure. More secure in a lot ways than banks. There are tons of new cryptocurrency projects being started everyday. For the most part, all of these projects have some sort of token integrated, because its what powers, and processes the data. If people find the project interesting or a great idea you like you’ll be able to invest in it buy buying/selling, or holding the token/coin. When these projects gain enough traction by like-minded individuals, the coin gains a value. This value can then be exchanged for other crypto, or traded directly for Fiat currencies ($,€,₽,¥,£,₩). For some examples of how wonderful the community is, and reveal what the true nature of blockchain and crypto was founded on, ill list 3 of my favorite crypto projects of 2020 so far along with a little excerpt from the white paper or other:
  1. AIDCOIN: “allows websites to embed a widget into their website and accept donations in any cryptocurrency. Any donated crypto is transferred into AID token, which is also a stable coin. At first, this might seem like not such a good thing but the more I looked into it, the more I realized accepting a stable coin might actually make more sense for a charity as it reduces their risk exposure to volatility.”
  2. BRAVE BROWSER—Privacy Internet Browser: “As far as I’m concerned, keeping people safe and protecting their privacy and security is a noble endeavor. For far too long, giants like Google and Facebook have gotten away with unethical data practices with nothing more than a slap on the wrist. They have been able to spy on their users, abuse their data and use it for whatever purpose they deem fit. Brave Browser is looking to put an end to that through the most secure browser that exists on the market today.” Basically Brave takes on the responsibility of completely protecting privacy and from ads. As an added available option, brave allows you, to watch and look at sponsored ads while you browse. So basically just a stand-in for other browsers ads, but instead you make money WITH brave. You are awarded BAT (Basic Attention Token) for your service. BAT’s are currently at .21¢.
  3. Power Ledger: Last but not least. Power Ledger is probably one of my favorite projects that is actually making a real use-case out of crypto and blockchain. They are aiming to disrupt the energy sector with a heightened focus on renewable energy. Their software allows for three core things: 1. Energy Trading (if you have excess energy from your solar panels, for example, you can trade that to your neighbor through Power Ledger). 2. Environmental commodities trading (to help for the reliable tracking of renewable energy credits). 3. Renewable asset ownership (This will allow people who cannot afford their own renewable energy set-up to invest in fractional ownership). I honestly think Power Ledger is doing God’s work and wish them all the best.
As those projects above outlined, the basic principles behind pretty much every currency and upcoming project i have ever seen is, Trust, Sharing profit with the users who help make it into what it becomes, actual transparency, no central authority (due to decentralization), and lastly i believe it gives opportunity to those who are out if opportunity’s way. This is because it reaches so far, like into oppressive governments and 3rd work countries. Anyways, i hope to have given you a little insight during this read. Crypto has so much potential to fill and has already done so much. Looking forward to seeing where else all of this goes.
submitted by ABetterPsychiatrist to referralcodes [link] [comments]

Earn 51-$171 in crypto (compound, stellar, celo, and maker) by simply learning about them and answering questions through my coinbase link! Instant payout upon completion! Can sell for cash and transfer to bank immediately! Will pay an extra $5 for each link used and completed! Very quick

Make $51+ to Learn about crypto on Coinbase! Up to $150 using my Bonus! [ID Verify Needed]
(If you want to learn a little about bitcoin and crypto, read the whole thing, if you just want the bonus, only read the next 15-20 sentences)
First use this one for your signup: https://www.coinbase.com/join/schaib_sl Once you signed up and verified identity use the links below!
  1. Compound: https://www.coinbase.com/earn/compound/lesson/5
  2. XLM: https://coinbase.com/earn/xlm/invite/0nb8vckp
Altogether there are 6 different lessons, each takes like 5-10 mins with a quiz at the end. Only 3 of them i will get rewarded for though. You will also get an extra $10 for each completed for my referral + $51 from all 6 quizzes and also another $120 if you get 4 people to do the quizzes. They are really quick, especially if already have an account. Also you can look up the answers for each one on google so you dont need to sit through them, be even quicker. Please complete the 3 i sent the links with to the end so we get 10$ reward extra. As soon as you finish they send you the coins into coin base account. Once they are in your account you can sell them instantly for $$, and transfer to your bank account, OR you can keep them on your account. EOS, and COMP have been doing really well, so they might be worth keeping. This is just a really good promotion, probably one of the better i’ve see. Its easy AF, quick, and the reward is really good. If you don’t know anything about crypto, i highly suggest you learn. It’s still very early and its growing super quick. cryptocurrency has gained a ton of attention in the past couple years and is actually starting to become a real actual currencies (already is, but according to our governments) many different types of crypto is starting to become accepted in a bunch of stores, realtors are taking as payment for a house, and colleges are even accepting as tuition. I started researching bitcoin a short amount of time after Satoshi Nakamoto released it (2009) and bought my first few in 2013 at 15$!! From early 2013 the price was about $11 USD and at the end of 2017, $20,000. But they fell and recovered as the stock market does. But the 24-hour trading Volume today, in 2020 is is INSANE ($20,690,383,231) with an even crazier market cap of $209,783,036,693, which by the middle-end of next month should reach $210 billion, possibly sooner. Its just a really smart investment, buy a little over time. Some analysts are predicting that BTC could reach anywhere from $100k to $1,000,000 for BTC in the next few years. Im not sure exactly where i would name the price in 5 years, but know there is only a limited supply of BTC. They are mined (basically just means that the transactions and blocks on the ledger or blockchain are verified) by sophisticated pieces of hardware called ASIIC miners, or some even use GPU, and CPU in expensive computers. Although CPU mining can be very inefficient anymore as the mathematical calculations and problems the miners need to solve get more and more complicated over time. This, the limited supply, the increasing interest, usability, and need for blockchain technology all add the the idea of BTC reaching such incredibly high futures. Their is a total of 20,999,976 bitcoin and that is it. With a total of 18,517,418.75 in circulation. The last BTC is estimated to be 2140. Big difference from the 18.5M mined in 10 years, right? Thats because of the halving. Anyway, I’m sure you have heard some things about BTC, probably from the media, and if it was, it probably wasn’t good. You probably heard that people buy illegal dangerous stuff off of the “Darknet” and that its completely untraceable. Or that money can be laundered through BTC. But that is hardly partly true for BTC and other cryptocurrencies, and completely true for the USD. While the blockchain doesn’t include any personal information connected to wallets (unless you want it there, or you have the wallet through a service that makes you use personal information, which many services are doing), all transactions can still be tracked and seen by anyone who has an internet connection at https://www.blockchain.com. So if the identity of one of the wallet addresses is known, it would be easier to figure the other out. But for paper, money that cannot be said... completely untraceable, has been prone to money laundering since it’s inception, can be used to purchase various drugs—hookers, guns, dynamite, and even politicians... since its inception, without a trace. The reason not just bitcoin, but i think even more exciting, is just blockchain technology and a host of things that are coming with it. It can be used for tons of things, software and can be built directly into blockchains, they can hold and process data at enormous speeds, while being extremely, extremely secure. More secure in a lot ways than banks. There are tons of new cryptocurrency projects being started everyday. For the most part, all of these projects have some sort of token integrated, because its what powers, and processes the data. If people find the project interesting or a great idea you like you’ll be able to invest in it buy buying/selling, or holding the token/coin. When these projects gain enough traction by like-minded individuals, the coin gains a value. This value can then be exchanged for other crypto, or traded directly for Fiat currencies ($,€,₽,¥,£,₩). For some examples of how wonderful the community is, and reveal what the true nature of blockchain and crypto was founded on, ill list 3 of my favorite crypto projects of 2020 so far along with a little excerpt from the white paper or other:
  1. AIDCOIN: “allows websites to embed a widget into their website and accept donations in any cryptocurrency. Any donated crypto is transferred into AID token, which is also a stable coin. At first, this might seem like not such a good thing but the more I looked into it, the more I realized accepting a stable coin might actually make more sense for a charity as it reduces their risk exposure to volatility.”
  2. BRAVE BROWSER—Privacy Internet Browser: “As far as I’m concerned, keeping people safe and protecting their privacy and security is a noble endeavor. For far too long, giants like Google and Facebook have gotten away with unethical data practices with nothing more than a slap on the wrist. They have been able to spy on their users, abuse their data and use it for whatever purpose they deem fit. Brave Browser is looking to put an end to that through the most secure browser that exists on the market today.” Basically Brave takes on the responsibility of completely protecting privacy and from ads. As an added available option, brave allows you, to watch and look at sponsored ads while you browse. So basically just a stand-in for other browsers ads, but instead you make money WITH brave. You are awarded BAT (Basic Attention Token) for your service. BAT’s are currently at .21¢.
  3. Power Ledger: Last but not least. Power Ledger is probably one of my favorite projects that is actually making a real use-case out of crypto and blockchain. They are aiming to disrupt the energy sector with a heightened focus on renewable energy. Their software allows for three core things: 1. Energy Trading (if you have excess energy from your solar panels, for example, you can trade that to your neighbor through Power Ledger). 2. Environmental commodities trading (to help for the reliable tracking of renewable energy credits). 3. Renewable asset ownership (This will allow people who cannot afford their own renewable energy set-up to invest in fractional ownership). I honestly think Power Ledger is doing God’s work and wish them all the best.
As those projects above outlined, the basic principles behind pretty much every currency and upcoming project i have ever seen is, Trust, Sharing profit with the users who help make it into what it becomes, actual transparency, no central authority (due to decentralization), and lastly i believe it gives opportunity to those who are out if opportunity’s way. This is because it reaches so far, like into oppressive governments and 3rd work countries. Anyways, i hope to have given you a little insight during this read. Crypto has so much potential to fill and has already done so much. Looking forward to seeing where else all of this goes.
submitted by ABetterPsychiatrist to ReferralsForPay [link] [comments]

Bitcoin! What it is!?

This material is published using the PII algorithm (point information impact) developed by zitramon1

Bitcoin is the lowest projection of the energy standard of the Higher Plans Erzanil and has nothing to do with money or cryptocurrencies. In its primary principle, bitcoin was intended to replace the modern banking credit monetary system to SES — the system of energy-informational-energy settlements / mutual settlements. Unfortunately, something went wrong.
Money is a deadly virus that in the past destroyed the vast majority of ancient highly developed civilizations of our planet. Our civilization is no exception. The real Bitcoin, which was supposed to replace the existing bank credit monetary system with a system of energy settlements, as well as countless times in the past, was successfully destroyed.
At the moment, bitcoin is deprived of its basic qualities. But, nevertheless, even in such a “truncated” form it is a powerful tool for terraforming the existing paradigm of the material world.
At the level of society or the manifested physical world, represented by the third dimension, Bitcoin is the Standard and Measure from which any Countdown starts, and which are the basis of all Principles. Bitcoin itself is not only composed of pure energy, but also itself is energy in the very purest form.
Our world is energy-informational. Everything that exists in this Universe and in this Dimension, as well as in many other dimensions, is the same Energy, but in its various states. And the state of Vibration of this energy, providing one or another level of its Density, just decides how it will manifest in our Reality. Matter is the compressed energy of slow vibration. In fact, bitcoin is the equivalent of energy, of which everything around us consists, including — and we are with you!
The tragedy of the majority is that it does not understand the true purpose of Bitcoin — it is that Measure of everything and everything from which the entire Countdown comes. Not the price of Bitcoin should be modeled in dollars, gold or parrots — which is absolutely equivalent, but the value of all other attributes of society in bitcoins!
The fractality of Bitcoin, as the foundation of any of the Worlds in which you are located, is reflected in its essence: at low-frequency levels, its projection represents two diverse anu combined in a single whole. It is this explosive-implosive particle that combines two opposites, and not some mythical atoms, quanta, neutrinos, and similar nonsense, is the basis of everything!
Not Satoshi is the smallest part of bitcoin, but a double anu or argo! Remember the catch phrase that personifies the synonym of all the great Beginnings — “like the Argonauts in the old days” !? Try to guess the first time about its origins, located on a subconscious level.
The mining process itself is nothing more than a manifestation of the lower projections of the energy standard of the higher planes of erzanil. The latter are “materialized” at the level of the third dimension or society in the form of bitcoins. During mining, the three main types of energy: electrical energy, the thermal energy of the video card / device itself and the energy that the programmer potentiated into the mining process itself, are converted into energy to fill the shells of bitcoins generated during the hashing process. This energy is stored in every bitcoin forever and will increase until the last block of the last bitcoin is fully mined.
This energy, which is potentialized in bitcoin, which can neither be felt nor touched, is what you get with bitcoin and / or any part of it !!! And in the future, invest it / Bitcoin, exchange, buy, change, etc. etc.
And it is this energy, in the future, that will serve as an evaluation standard for the value of all things.
The smallest part of bitcoin is not Satoshi, but Argo or the double Anu. One argo is one in minus twenty-first degree part of bitcoin, and its energy potential corresponds to one in minus twenty-first degree of it, bitcoin, the maximum possible energy content.
The entire energy potential of 21 million bitcoins determines the energy / energy-information capacity = energy / energy-information potential of the sephira Malkut of the Tree of life (Kabbalah) or the manifest physical world at the level of the third dimension.
In other words, all people including you and me, to some extent consist of bitcoins and represent its integral and composition parts! More confirmation of this:
https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020060606&tab=PCTBIBLIO
Calculations / mutual settlements by bitcoins are possible not only at the level of society / third dimension, but also on higher planes — astral and mental, since bitcoin is not an equivalent but pure energy and this makes subsequent contacts with more advanced forms of life possible other systems!
THAT’S WHAT IS THE ESSENCE OF BITCOIN!
p.s. You can see how bitcoin is managed here:
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hy4x5y/is_bitcoin_real_bitcoin_today/
submitted by Yoo_Tu to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Proof of work algorithm

Proof of work algorithm
Although the Proof of Work algorithm gained popularity only in the last decade, due to the fact that it is one of the basic principles in the operation of the BTC network, it first appeared in the early 90s. At the time of its creation, its task was to provide protection against DoS attacks, loading the computer from which the requests originated with the need to carry out certain calculations to access the needed resource. This did not affect the basic processes in any way, but if a DoS attack was carried out from the PC, it exceedingly overloaded it.

EXBASE.IO
Almost 20 years later, Satoshi Nakamoto decided to apply it, when it became necessary to guarantee the reliability of the mined blocks of information before they become part of the blockchain. The concept has become so successful that it is used in almost every existing cryptocurrency, albeit with some changes.
In order to better understand the principle of operation of this algorithm, you need to look at BTC and the practice of its application in this particular cryptocurrency. As you know, the Blockchain network consists of many equivalent nodes that are looking for a solution to the equation for the selection of a pseudo-random nonce number, so that a new block can be added to the network (mining). The mentioned number, after passing through the hash function, together with the information that is directly in the block, should return the hash of the new block. And the task of other participants is to substitute it into a function in order to make sure that it is correct (validation). This is much faster and more efficient than if everyone was just looking for this number, even when one of the nodes already founded it. As a result, a new block is added by the node that first found a solution, and it receives a reward, provided that other nodes have verified the authenticity of the number.
However, a new block cannot be added if the nonce number was not found. Each new block stores information about the hash of the previous one, respectively, they are cryptographically linked. Taking into account the fact that for the appearance of a new block it is necessary to perform a large amount of work, the algorithm was called Proof of Work.
Although PoW has significant drawbacks - a large amount of computing power is required, therefore, a regular PC can't be used for it, and besides it, a huge amount of electricity is needed to power all equipment, the algorithm has proven its effectiveness. It is reliable, it copes with the task perfectly and doesn't have many successful analogues.
#ProofofWork #PoW
Website: https://exbase.io/ru/ Twitter: @exbase_io_ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/exbase.io/ Telegram customer support: https://t.me/Exbaseofficial
submitted by ExBase_io to u/ExBase_io [link] [comments]

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake
https://preview.redd.it/b80c05tnb9e51.jpg?width=2550&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=850282c1a3962466ed44f73886dae1c8872d0f31
Submitted for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off
Baked by the pastry chefs at Offchain Labs
Please send questions or comments to [[email protected] ](mailto:[email protected])
1. Overview
We're excited to submit Arbitrum Rollup for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off. Arbitrum Rollup is the only Ethereum scaling solution that supports arbitrary smart contracts without compromising on Ethereum's security or adding points of centralization. For Reddit, this means that Arbitrum can not only scale the minting and transfer of Community Points, but it can foster a creative ecosystem built around Reddit Community Points enabling points to be used in a wide variety of third party applications. That's right -- you can have your cake and eat it too!
Arbitrum Rollup isn't just Ethereum-style. Its Layer 2 transactions are byte-for-byte identical to Ethereum, which means Ethereum users can continue to use their existing addresses and wallets, and Ethereum developers can continue to use their favorite toolchains and development environments out-of-the-box with Arbitrum. Coupling Arbitrum’s tooling-compatibility with its trustless asset interoperability, Reddit not only can scale but can onboard the entire Ethereum community at no cost by giving them the same experience they already know and love (well, certainly know).
To benchmark how Arbitrum can scale Reddit Community Points, we launched the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain. Since Arbitrum provides full Solidity support, we didn't have to rewrite the Reddit contracts or try to mimic their functionality using an unfamiliar paradigm. Nope, none of that. We launched the Reddit contracts unmodified on Arbitrum Rollup complete with support for minting and distributing points. Like every Arbitrum Rollup chain, the chain included a bridge interface in which users can transfer Community Points or any other asset between the L1 and L2 chains. Arbitrum Rollup chains also support dynamic contract loading, which would allow third-party developers to launch custom ecosystem apps that integrate with Community Points on the very same chain that runs the Reddit contracts.
1.1 Why Ethereum
Perhaps the most exciting benefit of distributing Community Points using a blockchain is the ability to seamlessly port points to other applications and use them in a wide variety of contexts. Applications may include simple transfers such as a restaurant that allows Redditors to spend points on drinks. Or it may include complex smart contracts -- such as placing Community Points as a wager for a multiparty game or as collateral in a financial contract.
The common denominator between all of the fun uses of Reddit points is that it needs a thriving ecosystem of both users and developers, and the Ethereum blockchain is perhaps the only smart contract platform with significant adoption today. While many Layer 1 blockchains boast lower cost or higher throughput than the Ethereum blockchain, more often than not, these attributes mask the reality of little usage, weaker security, or both.
Perhaps another platform with significant usage will rise in the future. But today, Ethereum captures the mindshare of the blockchain community, and for Community Points to provide the most utility, the Ethereum blockchain is the natural choice.
1.2 Why Arbitrum
While Ethereum's ecosystem is unmatched, the reality is that fees are high and capacity is too low to support the scale of Reddit Community Points. Enter Arbitrum. Arbitrum Rollup provides all of the ecosystem benefits of Ethereum, but with orders of magnitude more capacity and at a fraction of the cost of native Ethereum smart contracts. And most of all, we don't change the experience from users. They continue to use the same wallets, addresses, languages, and tools.
Arbitrum Rollup is not the only solution that can scale payments, but it is the only developed solution that can scale both payments and arbitrary smart contracts trustlessly, which means that third party users can build highly scalable add-on apps that can be used without withdrawing money from the Rollup chain. If you believe that Reddit users will want to use their Community Points in smart contracts--and we believe they will--then it makes the most sense to choose a single scaling solution that can support the entire ecosystem, eliminating friction for users.
We view being able to run smart contracts in the same scaling solution as fundamentally critical since if there's significant demand in running smart contracts from Reddit's ecosystem, this would be a load on Ethereum and would itself require a scaling solution. Moreover, having different scaling solutions for the minting/distribution/spending of points and for third party apps would be burdensome for users as they'd have to constantly shuffle their Points back and forth.
2. Arbitrum at a glance
Arbitrum Rollup has a unique value proposition as it offers a combination of features that no other scaling solution achieves. Here we highlight its core attributes.
Decentralized. Arbitrum Rollup is as decentralized as Ethereum. Unlike some other Layer 2 scaling projects, Arbitrum Rollup doesn't have any centralized components or centralized operators who can censor users or delay transactions. Even in non-custodial systems, centralized components provide a risk as the operators are generally incentivized to increase their profit by extracting rent from users often in ways that severely degrade user experience. Even if centralized operators are altruistic, centralized components are subject to hacking, coercion, and potential liability.
Massive Scaling. Arbitrum achieves order of magnitude scaling over Ethereum's L1 smart contracts. Our software currently supports 453 transactions-per-second for basic transactions (at 1616 Ethereum gas per tx). We have a lot of room left to optimize (e.g. aggregating signatures), and over the next several months capacity will increase significantly. As described in detail below, Arbitrum can easily support and surpass Reddit's anticipated initial load, and its capacity will continue to improve as Reddit's capacity needs grow.
Low cost. The cost of running Arbitrum Rollup is quite low compared to L1 Ethereum and other scaling solutions such as those based on zero-knowledge proofs. Layer 2 fees are low, fixed, and predictable and should not be overly burdensome for Reddit to cover. Nobody needs to use special equipment or high-end machines. Arbitrum requires validators, which is a permissionless role that can be run on any reasonable on-line machine. Although anybody can act as a validator, in order to protect against a “tragedy of the commons” and make sure reputable validators are participating, we support a notion of “invited validators” that are compensated for their costs. In general, users pay (low) fees to cover the invited validators’ costs, but we imagine that Reddit may cover this cost for its users. See more on the costs and validator options below.
Ethereum Developer Experience. Not only does Arbitrum support EVM smart contracts, but the developer experience is identical to that of L1 Ethereum contracts and fully compatible with Ethereum tooling. Developers can port existing Solidity apps or write new ones using their favorite and familiar toolchains (e.g. Truffle, Buidler). There are no new languages or coding paradigms to learn.
Ethereum wallet compatibility. Just as in Ethereum, Arbitrum users need only hold keys, but do not have to store any coin history or additional data to protect or access their funds. Since Arbitrum transactions are semantically identical to Ethereum L1 transactions, existing Ethereum users can use their existing Ethereum keys with their existing wallet software such as Metamask.
Token interoperability. Users can easily transfer their ETH, ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens between Ethereum and the Arbitrum Rollup chain. As we explain in detail below, it is possible to mint tokens in L2 that can subsequently be withdrawn and recognized by the L1 token contract.
Fast finality. Transactions complete with the same finality time as Ethereum L1 (and it's possible to get faster finality guarantees by trading away trust assumptions; see the Arbitrum Rollup whitepaper for details).
Non-custodial. Arbitrum Rollup is a non-custodial scaling solution, so users control their funds/points and neither Reddit nor anyone else can ever access or revoke points held by users.
Censorship Resistant. Since it's completely decentralized, and the Arbitrum protocol guarantees progress trustlessly, Arbitrum Rollup is just as censorship-proof as Ethereum.
Block explorer. The Arbitrum Rollup block explorer allows users to view and analyze transactions on the Rollup chain.
Limitations
Although this is a bake-off, we're not going to sugar coat anything. Arbitrum Rollup, like any Optimistic Rollup protocol, does have one limitation, and that's the delay on withdrawals.
As for the concrete length of the delay, we've done a good deal of internal modeling and have blogged about this as well. Our current modeling suggests a 3-hour delay is sufficient (but as discussed in the linked post there is a tradeoff space between the length of the challenge period and the size of the validators’ deposit).
Note that this doesn't mean that the chain is delayed for three hours. Arbitrum Rollup supports pipelining of execution, which means that validators can keep building new states even while previous ones are “in the pipeline” for confirmation. As the challenge delays expire for each update, a new state will be confirmed (read more about this here).
So activity and progress on the chain are not delayed by the challenge period. The only thing that's delayed is the consummation of withdrawals. Recall though that any single honest validator knows immediately (at the speed of L1 finality) which state updates are correct and can guarantee that they will eventually be confirmed, so once a valid withdrawal has been requested on-chain, every honest party knows that the withdrawal will definitely happen. There's a natural place here for a liquidity market in which a validator (or someone who trusts a validator) can provide withdrawal loans for a small interest fee. This is a no-risk business for them as they know which withdrawals will be confirmed (and can force their confirmation trustlessly no matter what anyone else does) but are just waiting for on-chain finality.
3. The recipe: How Arbitrum Rollup works
For a description of the technical components of Arbitrum Rollup and how they interact to create a highly scalable protocol with a developer experience that is identical to Ethereum, please refer to the following documents:
Arbitrum Rollup Whitepaper
Arbitrum academic paper (describes a previous version of Arbitrum)
4. Developer docs and APIs
For full details about how to set up and interact with an Arbitrum Rollup chain or validator, please refer to our developer docs, which can be found at https://developer.offchainlabs.com/.
Note that the Arbitrum version described on that site is older and will soon be replaced by the version we are entering in Reddit Bake-Off, which is still undergoing internal testing before public release.
5. Who are the validators?
As with any Layer 2 protocol, advancing the protocol correctly requires at least one validator (sometimes called block producers) that is honest and available. A natural question is: who are the validators?
Recall that the validator set for an Arbitrum chain is open and permissionless; anyone can start or stop validating at will. (A useful analogy is to full nodes on an L1 chain.) But we understand that even though anyone can participate, Reddit may want to guarantee that highly reputable nodes are validating their chain. Reddit may choose to validate the chain themselves and/or hire third-party validators.To this end, we have begun building a marketplace for validator-for-hire services so that dapp developers can outsource validation services to reputable nodes with high up-time. We've announced a partnership in which Chainlink nodes will provide Arbitrum validation services, and we expect to announce more partnerships shortly with other blockchain infrastructure providers.
Although there is no requirement that validators are paid, Arbitrum’s economic model tracks validators’ costs (e.g. amount of computation and storage) and can charge small fees on user transactions, using a gas-type system, to cover those costs. Alternatively, a single party such as Reddit can agree to cover the costs of invited validators.
6. Reddit Contract Support
Since Arbitrum contracts and transactions are byte-for-byte compatible with Ethereum, supporting the Reddit contracts is as simple as launching them on an Arbitrum chain.
Minting. Arbitrum Rollup supports hybrid L1/L2 tokens which can be minted in L2 and then withdrawn onto the L1. An L1 contract at address A can make a special call to the EthBridge which deploys a "buddy contract" to the same address A on an Arbitrum chain. Since it's deployed at the same address, users can know that the L2 contract is the authorized "buddy" of the L1 contract on the Arbitrum chain.
For minting, the L1 contract is a standard ERC-20 contract which mints and burns tokens when requested by the L2 contract. It is paired with an ERC-20 contract in L2 which mints tokens based on whatever programmer provided minting facility is desired and burns tokens when they are withdrawn from the rollup chain. Given this base infrastructure, Arbitrum can support any smart contract based method for minting tokens in L2, and indeed we directly support Reddit's signature/claim based minting in L2.
Batch minting. What's better than a mint cookie? A whole batch! In addition to supporting Reddit’s current minting/claiming scheme, we built a second minting design, which we believe outperforms the signature/claim system in many scenarios.
In the current system, Reddit periodically issues signed statements to users, who then take those statements to the blockchain to claim their tokens. An alternative approach would have Reddit directly submit the list of users/amounts to the blockchain and distribute the tokens to the users without the signature/claim process.
To optimize the cost efficiency of this approach, we designed an application-specific compression scheme to minimize the size of the batch distribution list. We analyzed the data from Reddit's previous distributions and found that the data is highly compressible since token amounts are small and repeated, and addresses appear multiple times. Our function groups transactions by size, and replaces previously-seen addresses with a shorter index value. We wrote client code to compress the data, wrote a Solidity decompressing function, and integrated that function into Reddit’s contract running on Arbitrum.
When we ran the compression function on the previous Reddit distribution data, we found that we could compress batched minting data down to to 11.8 bytes per minting event (averaged over a 6-month trace of Reddit’s historical token grants)compared with roughly 174 bytes of on-chain data needed for the signature claim approach to minting (roughly 43 for an RLP-encoded null transaction + 65 for Reddit's signature + 65 for the user's signature + roughly 8 for the number of Points) .
The relative benefit of the two approaches with respect to on-chain call data cost depends on the percentage of users that will actually claim their tokens on chain. With the above figures, batch minting will be cheaper if roughly 5% of users redeem their claims. We stress that our compression scheme is not Arbitrum-specific and would be beneficial in any general-purpose smart contract platform.
8. Benchmarks and costs
In this section, we give the full costs of operating the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain including the L1 gas costs for the Rollup chain, the costs of computation and storage for the L2 validators as well as the capital lockup requirements for staking.
Arbitrum Rollup is still on testnet, so we did not run mainnet benchmarks. Instead, we measured the L1 gas cost and L2 workload for Reddit operations on Arbitrum and calculated the total cost assuming current Ethereum gas prices. As noted below in detail, our measurements do not assume that Arbitrum is consuming the entire capacity of Ethereum. We will present the details of our model now, but for full transparency you can also play around with it yourself and adjust the parameters, by copying the spreadsheet found here.
Our cost model is based on measurements of Reddit’s contracts, running unmodified (except for the addition of a batch minting function) on Arbitrum Rollup on top of Ethereum.
On the distribution of transactions and frequency of assertions. Reddit's instructions specify the following minimum parameters that submissions should support:
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
  • 100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points)
  • 25,000 subscriptions
  • 75,000 one-off points burning
  • 100,000 transfers
We provide the full costs of operating an Arbitrum Rollup chain with this usage under the assumption that tokens are minted or granted to users in batches, but other transactions are uniformly distributed over the 5 day period. Unlike some other submissions, we do not make unrealistic assumptions that all operations can be submitted in enormous batches. We assume that batch minting is done in batches that use only a few percent on an L1 block’s gas, and that other operations come in evenly over time and are submitted in batches, with one batch every five minutes to keep latency reasonable. (Users are probably already waiting for L1 finality, which takes at least that long to achieve.)
We note that assuming that there are only 300,000 transactions that arrive uniformly over the 5 day period will make our benchmark numbers lower, but we believe that this will reflect the true cost of running the system. To see why, say that batches are submitted every five minutes (20 L1 blocks) and there's a fixed overhead of c bytes of calldata per batch, the cost of which will get amortized over all transactions executed in that batch. Assume that each individual transaction adds a marginal cost of t. Lastly assume the capacity of the scaling system is high enough that it can support all of Reddit's 300,000 transactions within a single 20-block batch (i.e. that there is more than c + 300,000*t byes of calldata available in 20 blocks).
Consider what happens if c, the per-batch overhead, is large (which it is in some systems, but not in Arbitrum). In the scenario that transactions actually arrive at the system's capacity and each batch is full, then c gets amortized over 300,000 transactions. But if we assume that the system is not running at capacity--and only receives 300,000 transactions arriving uniformly over 5 days-- then each 20-block assertion will contain about 200 transactions, and thus each transaction will pay a nontrivial cost due to c.
We are aware that other proposals presented scaling numbers assuming that 300,000 transactions arrived at maximum capacity and was executed in a single mega-transaction, but according to our estimates, for at least one such report, this led to a reported gas price that was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than it would have been assuming uniform arrival. We make more realistic batching assumptions, and we believe Arbitrum compares well when batch sizes are realistic.
Our model. Our cost model includes several sources of cost:
  • L1 gas costs: This is the cost of posting transactions as calldata on the L1 chain, as well as the overhead associated with each batch of transactions, and the L1 cost of settling transactions in the Arbitrum protocol.
  • Validator’s staking costs: In normal operation, one validator will need to be staked. The stake is assumed to be 0.2% of the total value of the chain (which is assumed to be $1 per user who is eligible to claim points). The cost of staking is the interest that could be earned on the money if it were not staked.
  • Validator computation and storage: Every validator must do computation to track the chain’s processing of transactions, and must maintain storage to keep track of the contracts’ EVM storage. The cost of computation and storage are estimated based on measurements, with the dollar cost of resources based on Amazon Web Services pricing.
It’s clear from our modeling that the predominant cost is for L1 calldata. This will probably be true for any plausible rollup-based system.
Our model also shows that Arbitrum can scale to workloads much larger than Reddit’s nominal workload, without exhausting L1 or L2 resources. The scaling bottleneck will ultimately be calldata on the L1 chain. We believe that cost could be reduced substantially if necessary by clever encoding of data. (In our design any compression / decompression of L2 transaction calldata would be done by client software and L2 programs, never by an L1 contract.)
9. Status of Arbitrum Rollup
Arbitrum Rollup is live on Ethereum testnet. All of the code written to date including everything included in the Reddit demo is open source and permissively licensed under the Apache V2 license. The first testnet version of Arbitrum Rollup was released on testnet in February. Our current internal version, which we used to benchmark the Reddit contracts, will be released soon and will be a major upgrade.
Both the Arbitrum design as well as the implementation are heavily audited by independent third parties. The Arbitrum academic paper was published at USENIX Security, a top-tier peer-reviewed academic venue. For the Arbitrum software, we have engaged Trail of Bits for a security audit, which is currently ongoing, and we are committed to have a clean report before launching on Ethereum mainnet.
10. Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup Chain
The benchmarks described in this document were all measured using the latest internal build of our software. When we release the new software upgrade publicly we will launch a Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup chain as a public demo, which will contain the Reddit contracts as well as a Uniswap instance and a Connext Hub, demonstrating how Community Points can be integrated into third party apps. We will also allow members of the public to dynamically launch ecosystem contracts. We at Offchain Labs will cover the validating costs for the Reddit Universe public demo.
If the folks at Reddit would like to evaluate our software prior to our public demo, please email us at [email protected] and we'd be more than happy to provide early access.
11. Even more scaling: Arbitrum Sidechains
Rollups are an excellent approach to scaling, and we are excited about Arbitrum Rollup which far surpasses Reddit's scaling needs. But looking forward to Reddit's eventual goal of supporting hundreds of millions of users, there will likely come a time when Reddit needs more scaling than any Rollup protocol can provide.
While Rollups greatly reduce costs, they don't break the linear barrier. That is, all transactions have an on-chain footprint (because all calldata must be posted on-chain), albeit a far smaller one than on native Ethereum, and the L1 limitations end up being the bottleneck for capacity and cost. Since Ethereum has limited capacity, this linear use of on-chain resources means that costs will eventually increase superlinearly with traffic.
The good news is that we at Offchain Labs have a solution in our roadmap that can satisfy this extreme-scaling setting as well: Arbitrum AnyTrust Sidechains. Arbitrum Sidechains are similar to Arbitrum Rollup, but deviate in that they name a permissioned set of validators. When a chain’s validators agree off-chain, they can greatly reduce the on-chain footprint of the protocol and require almost no data to be put on-chain. When validators can't reach unanimous agreement off-chain, the protocol reverts to Arbitrum Rollup. Technically, Arbitrum Sidechains can be viewed as a hybrid between state channels and Rollup, switching back and forth as necessary, and combining the performance and cost that state channels can achieve in the optimistic case, with the robustness of Rollup in other cases. The core technical challenge is how to switch seamlessly between modes and how to guarantee that security is maintained throughout.
Arbitrum Sidechains break through this linear barrier, while still maintaining a high level of security and decentralization. Arbitrum Sidechains provide the AnyTrust guarantee, which says that as long as any one validator is honest and available (even if you don't know which one will be), the L2 chain is guaranteed to execute correctly according to its code and guaranteed to make progress. Unlike in a state channel, offchain progress does not require unanimous consent, and liveness is preserved as long as there is a single honest validator.
Note that the trust model for Arbitrum Sidechains is much stronger than for typical BFT-style chains which introduce a consensus "voting" protocols among a small permissioned group of validators. BFT-based protocols require a supermajority (more than 2/3) of validators to agree. In Arbitrum Sidechains, by contrast, all you need is a single honest validator to achieve guaranteed correctness and progress. Notice that in Arbitrum adding validators strictly increases security since the AnyTrust guarantee provides correctness as long as any one validator is honest and available. By contrast, in BFT-style protocols, adding nodes can be dangerous as a coalition of dishonest nodes can break the protocol.
Like Arbitrum Rollup, the developer and user experiences for Arbitrum Sidechains will be identical to that of Ethereum. Reddit would be able to choose a large and diverse set of validators, and all that they would need to guarantee to break through the scaling barrier is that a single one of them will remain honest.
We hope to have Arbitrum Sidechains in production in early 2021, and thus when Reddit reaches the scale that surpasses the capacity of Rollups, Arbitrum Sidechains will be waiting and ready to help.
While the idea to switch between channels and Rollup to get the best of both worlds is conceptually simple, getting the details right and making sure that the switch does not introduce any attack vectors is highly non-trivial and has been the subject of years of our research (indeed, we were working on this design for years before the term Rollup was even coined).
12. How Arbitrum compares
We include a comparison to several other categories as well as specific projects when appropriate. and explain why we believe that Arbitrum is best suited for Reddit's purposes. We focus our attention on other Ethereum projects.
Payment only Rollups. Compared to Arbitrum Rollup, ZK-Rollups and other Rollups that only support token transfers have several disadvantages:
  • As outlined throughout the proposal, we believe that the entire draw of Ethereum is in its rich smart contracts support which is simply not achievable with today's zero-knowledge proof technology. Indeed, scaling with a ZK-Rollup will add friction to the deployment of smart contracts that interact with Community Points as users will have to withdraw their coins from the ZK-Rollup and transfer them to a smart contract system (like Arbitrum). The community will be best served if Reddit builds on a platform that has built-in, frictionless smart-contract support.
  • All other Rollup protocols of which we are aware employ a centralized operator. While it's true that users retain custody of their coins, the centralized operator can often profit from censoring, reordering, or delaying transactions. A common misconception is that since they're non-custodial protocols, a centralized sequencer does not pose a risk but this is incorrect as the sequencer can wreak havoc or shake down users for side payments without directly stealing funds.
  • Sidechain type protocols can eliminate some of these issues, but they are not trustless. Instead, they require trust in some quorum of a committee, often requiring two-third of the committee to be honest, compared to rollup protocols like Arbitrum that require only a single honest party. In addition, not all sidechain type protocols have committees that are diverse, or even non-centralized, in practice.
  • Plasma-style protocols have a centralized operator and do not support general smart contracts.
13. Concluding Remarks
While it's ultimately up to the judges’ palate, we believe that Arbitrum Rollup is the bakeoff choice that Reddit kneads. We far surpass Reddit's specified workload requirement at present, have much room to optimize Arbitrum Rollup in the near term, and have a clear path to get Reddit to hundreds of millions of users. Furthermore, we are the only project that gives developers and users the identical interface as the Ethereum blockchain and is fully interoperable and tooling-compatible, and we do this all without any new trust assumptions or centralized components.
But no matter how the cookie crumbles, we're glad to have participated in this bake-off and we thank you for your consideration.
About Offchain Labs
Offchain Labs, Inc. is a venture-funded New York company that spun out of Princeton University research, and is building the Arbitrum platform to usher in the next generation of scalable, interoperable, and compatible smart contracts. Offchain Labs is backed by Pantera Capital, Compound VC, Coinbase Ventures, and others.
Leadership Team
Ed Felten
Ed Felten is Co-founder and Chief Scientist at Offchain Labs. He is on leave from Princeton University, where he is the Robert E. Kahn Professor of Computer Science and Public Affairs. From 2015 to 2017 he served at the White House as Deputy United States Chief Technology Officer and senior advisor to the President. He is an ACM Fellow and member of the National Academy of Engineering. Outside of work, he is an avid runner, cook, and L.A. Dodgers fan.
Steven Goldfeder
Steven Goldfeder is Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer at Offchain Labs. He holds a PhD from Princeton University, where he worked at the intersection of cryptography and cryptocurrencies including threshold cryptography, zero-knowledge proof systems, and post-quantum signatures. He is a co-author of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies, the leading textbook on cryptocurrencies, and he has previously worked at Google and Microsoft Research, where he co-invented the Picnic signature algorithm. When not working, you can find Steven spending time with his family, taking a nature walk, or twisting balloons.
Harry Kalodner
Harry Kalodner is Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer at Offchain Labs where he leads the engineering team. Before the company he attended Princeton as a Ph.D candidate where his research explored economics, anonymity, and incentive compatibility of cryptocurrencies, and he also has worked at Apple. When not up at 3:00am writing code, Harry occasionally sleeps.
submitted by hkalodner to ethereum [link] [comments]

40 Active strains available! We'll be moving to a new lab next week, let's clear out some stock!

Hey you! Thanks for checking out my listing here, you're awesome and mush love for even opening the post!
DO NOT MESSAGE ME, COMMENT HERE, OR OTHERWISE HINT THAT YOU WILL USE ANY ACTIVE SPORES FOR ANYTHING ASIDE FROM STUDY OR ART!!
NEARLY ALL PRIOR ORDERS HAVE SHIPPED! IF YOU NEED A TRACKING NUMBER - OUR BAD - SHOOT US A MESSAGE AND WE'LL GET IT TO YOU!

Website

All orders are accepted through our website, use code REDDIT10 to get 10% off, thanks redditors!!!

Do you have a ton of spore prints? I buy bulk!

Shoot me a message! I'd love to buy them or, I am always open to a trade for new strains if you don't want to or can't afford anything listed below, just slide into my DMs and I will do everything I can to work it out!

How Do I Order?!

With a little help from this link! Give it a click and you'll be brought to a draft message to be sent right to me, and we will make stuff happen!
Or, if you're more comfortable using the Reddit Chat feature, click here and shoot me a message there.
I can also be reached at gmail, tutanota, and signal - same address as my username here (SouthwestShroomery @ ...)!
Lastly, if you absolutely do not want to use any electronic communications, you can shoot me some snail mail with your order to, please either include your order total in cash, or expect a reply letter with your total!
SWS PO Box 4455 Albuquerque NM, 87196 

All active swabs, syringes and prints, are for microscopy uses only. If you ask me about cultivation methods for Active spores, I will be unable to complete your order and be forced to block you. PLEASE do not put the community at risk by discussing cultivation!

I cannot ship any active spores to CA, GA, or ID. Please don't ask!

Cloning/Cleanup Service

Do you hit the trail and collect every piece of fungi you come across? Do you have a culture or sample you found in the wild that you'd like cleaned up and a plate returned?
This service is only available for Gourmet cultures! Please do not put our communities at risk by asking me about cultivating any form of active mushrooms. This includes asking me to identify them!
Shoot me a message! (click here) with the details of your request and let's chat.
Prices start at $40 depending on your sample and are fully refundable if I cannot clean it up or reproduce it!
tl;dr - send a sample, get an agar plate or spore prints!

Actives

All active swabs, syringes, are for microscopy uses only. If you ask me about cultivation methods for Active spores, I will be unable to complete your order and be forced to block you. PLEASE do not put the community at risk by discussing cultivation!
  • 🦍 Albino Penis Envy Swabs 🦍 ($12/2 or $20/4)
Available in Syringes ($12ea, 3 for $30, 5 for $45, 7 for $55, or 10 for $75):
These strains are also available in grab bag format on our website at an even steeper discount!
  • Alleni
  • Albino A+
  • Ajax
  • Argentinian
  • B+
  • Blue Meanie
  • Burma
  • Burmese Penis Envy
  • Cambodian
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuban
  • Golden Mammoth
  • Golden Teacher
  • Great White Monster
  • Hillbilly
  • Huatla
  • Jedi Mind Fuck
  • Koh Samui Super Strain
  • Malabar
  • McKennaii
  • Mazatapec
  • Moby Dick
  • Mr. White
  • PES Amazonian
  • PES Hawaiian
  • PE #6
  • PF Classic
  • Purple Mystic
  • Puerto Rican
  • RustyWhyte
  • South American
  • Thai Pink Buffalo
  • Thai Lipa Yai
  • Tidal Wave
  • Treasure Coast
  • Wollongong
  • Z-Strain
  • John Allen
  • Peacock
Available in prints ($15ea unless otherwise specified, purchase through Reddit only, not website):
  • Golden Teacher ($10)
  • Ajax
  • B+
  • Pan Cyan. Goliath ($20)
  • PESH
  • Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata
  • Thai Pink Buffalo ($10)
  • Treasure Coast ($10)
  • Z-Strain ($10)

Gourmet

The following cultures are all available in either a fully colonized agar plate ($25), wedge in an eppendorf tube ($8/ea), or liquid culture syringe ($12 for 1, $20 for 2, $25 for 3) unless otherwise specified. Use codes (2LC, 3LC on the website for these prices!)
For the foreseeable future, we're now offering WEDGE GRAB BAGS on top of all of our other stuff -- they're all on our website at steep discounts, so go check it out!!
Plates are made to order, always shipped within 21 days, and wedges are packaged and shipped on Wednesdays, aka *Wedge-days amirite? Liquid Culture syringes generally are drawn upon order submission.*
Some of the below are available only in certain formats, i'll let you know upon sending me a message if so
  • Tarragon Oyster
  • Blue Oyster
  • Pearl Oyster 3015
  • Pink Oyster
  • Phoenix Oyster
  • King Oyster
  • Black Poplar
  • Golden Oyster
  • Bitter Oyster (Glows in the dark!)
  • Sporeless Oyster
  • Golden Enoki
  • Maitake
  • Lion's Mane
  • Wine Caps
  • Warm Fruiting Shiitake
  • Chocolate Shiitake
  • Yellow Reishi
  • Red Reishi
  • Cordyceps Militaris
  • Wood Ear
  • White Morel
  • Chicken Of The Woods
  • Nameko
  • Turkey Tail
  • Shaggy Mane
  • Black Poplar
  • Black Pearl Oyster
  • Golden Winecap
  • Olive Oysterling
  • Yellow Morel
  • Aspen Oyster
  • Crown Coral

Payment Options

Shipping will be calculated after receiving your order!
I'm happy to accept payment through Venmo, Credit/Debit, PayPal, Bitcoin, Cashapp, or Amazon Gift Cards (+10%) and Cash via Mail.
Thanks for taking the time to read all the way down to the bottom! Please reach out to me with any questions, all of my contact information is up above! If you're still here and want to get your mycology on, send me a message!
submitted by SouthwestShroomery to MycoBazaar [link] [comments]

Moving to a new lab next week, need to clear out some stock. Come take advantage of these prices while they last!

Hey you! Thanks for checking out my listing here, you're awesome and mush love for even opening the post!
DO NOT MESSAGE ME, COMMENT HERE, OR OTHERWISE HINT THAT YOU WILL USE ANY ACTIVE SPORES FOR ANYTHING ASIDE FROM STUDY OR ART!!
NEARLY ALL PRIOR ORDERS HAVE SHIPPED! IF YOU NEED A TRACKING NUMBER - OUR BAD - SHOOT US A MESSAGE AND WE'LL GET IT TO YOU!

Website

Check out quickly and easily at https://SouthwestShroomery.com!

Do you have a ton of spore prints? I buy bulk!

Shoot me a message! I'd love to buy them or, I am always open to a trade for new strains if you don't want to or can't afford anything listed below, just slide into my DMs and I will do everything I can to work it out!

How Do I Order?!

With a little help from this link! Give it a click and you'll be brought to a draft message to be sent right to me, and we will make stuff happen!
Or, if you're more comfortable using the Reddit Chat feature, click here and shoot me a message there.
I can also be reached at gmail, tutanota, and signal - same address as my username here (SouthwestShroomery @ ...)!
Lastly, if you absolutely do not want to use any electronic communications, you can shoot me some snail mail with your order to, please either include your order total in cash, or expect a reply letter with your total!
SWS PO Box 4455 Albuquerque NM, 87196 

All active swabs, syringes and prints, are for microscopy uses only. If you ask me about cultivation methods for Active spores, I will be unable to complete your order and be forced to block you. PLEASE do not put the community at risk by discussing cultivation!

I cannot ship any active spores to CA, GA, or ID. Please don't ask!

Cloning/Cleanup Service

Do you hit the trail and collect every piece of fungi you come across? Do you have a culture or sample you found in the wild that you'd like cleaned up and a plate returned?
This service is only available for Gourmet cultures! Please do not put our communities at risk by asking me about cultivating any form of active mushrooms. This includes asking me to identify them!
Shoot me a message! (click here) with the details of your request and let's chat.
Prices start at $40 depending on your sample and are fully refundable if I cannot clean it up or reproduce it!
tl;dr - send a sample, get an agar plate or spore prints!

Actives

All active swabs, syringes, are for microscopy uses only. If you ask me about cultivation methods for Active spores, I will be unable to complete your order and be forced to block you. PLEASE do not put the community at risk by discussing cultivation!
  • 🦍 Albino Penis Envy Swabs 🦍 ($12/2 or $20/4)
Available in Syringes ($12ea, 3 for $30, 5 for $45, 7 for $55, or 10 for $75):
These strains are also available in grab bag format on our website at an even steeper discount!
  • Alleni
  • Albino A+
  • Ajax
  • Argentinian
  • B+
  • Blue Meanie
  • Burma
  • Burmese Penis Envy
  • Cambodian
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuban
  • Golden Mammoth
  • Golden Teacher
  • Great White Monster
  • Hillbilly
  • Huatla
  • Jedi Mind Fuck
  • Koh Samui Super Strain
  • Malabar
  • McKennaii
  • Mazatapec
  • Moby Dick
  • Mr. White
  • PES Amazonian
  • PES Hawaiian
  • PE #6
  • PF Classic
  • Purple Mystic
  • Puerto Rican
  • RustyWhyte
  • South American
  • Thai Pink Buffalo
  • Thai Lipa Yai
  • Tidal Wave
  • Treasure Coast
  • Wollongong
  • Z-Strain
  • John Allen
  • Peacock
Available in prints ($15ea unless otherwise specified, purchase through Reddit only, not website):
  • Golden Teacher ($10)
  • Ajax
  • B+
  • Pan Cyan. Goliath ($20)
  • PESH
  • Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata
  • Thai Pink Buffalo ($10)
  • Treasure Coast ($10)
  • Z-Strain ($10)

Gourmet

The following cultures are all available in either a fully colonized agar plate ($25), wedge in an eppendorf tube ($8/ea), or liquid culture syringe ($12 for 1, $20 for 2, $25 for 3) unless otherwise specified. Use codes (2LC, 3LC on the website for these prices!)
For the foreseeable future, we're now offering WEDGE GRAB BAGS on top of all of our other stuff -- they're all on our website at steep discounts, so go check it out!!
Plates are made to order, always shipped within 21 days, and wedges are packaged and shipped on Wednesdays, aka *Wedge-days amirite? Liquid Culture syringes generally are drawn upon order submission.*
Some of the below are available only in certain formats, i'll let you know upon sending me a message if so
  • Tarragon Oyster
  • Blue Oyster
  • Pearl Oyster 3015
  • Pink Oyster
  • Phoenix Oyster
  • King Oyster
  • Black Poplar
  • Golden Oyster
  • Bitter Oyster (Glows in the dark!)
  • Sporeless Oyster
  • Golden Enoki
  • Maitake
  • Lion's Mane
  • Wine Caps
  • Warm Fruiting Shiitake
  • Chocolate Shiitake
  • Yellow Reishi
  • Red Reishi
  • Cordyceps Militaris
  • Wood Ear
  • White Morel
  • Chicken Of The Woods
  • Nameko
  • Turkey Tail
  • Shaggy Mane
  • Black Poplar
  • Black Pearl Oyster
  • Golden Winecap
  • Olive Oysterling
  • Yellow Morel
  • Aspen Oyster
  • Crown Coral

Payment Options

Shipping will be calculated after receiving your order!
I'm happy to accept payment through Venmo, Credit/Debit, PayPal, Bitcoin, Cashapp, or Amazon Gift Cards (+10%) and Cash via Mail.
Thanks for taking the time to read all the way down to the bottom! Please reach out to me with any questions, all of my contact information is up above! If you're still here and want to get your mycology on, send me a message!
submitted by SouthwestShroomery to u/SouthwestShroomery [link] [comments]

Not one, not two, but THREE GIVEAWAYS in one post! Come win some amazing prizes this weekend! 🍄❤️ 39 Active varieties, new Gourmet Wedge Grab bags! 🦍🦍 APE 🦍🦍 Swabs must go!

Hey you! Thanks for checking out my listing here, you're awesome and mush love for even opening the post!
DO NOT MESSAGE ME, COMMENT HERE, OR OTHERWISE HINT THAT YOU WILL USE ANY ACTIVE SPORES FOR ANYTHING ASIDE FROM STUDY OR ART!!
NEARLY ALL PRIOR ORDERS HAVE SHIPPED! IF YOU NEED A TRACKING NUMBER - OUR BAD - SHOOT US A MESSAGE AND WE'LL GET IT TO YOU!

Website

Our website is on our profile!

Giveaways!

For every $10 spent on orders placed exclusively on our website from 00:00:00 MST on 9/1 through 11:59:59 on 9/7 are entered into everyone's favorite giveaway:
One of every single active spore syringe we offer - 39 at time of writing!!
if you participate and win in GA/CA/ID, you'll receive one of all of our gourmets instead.
AND!
If your order number ends in a 9, and the day of the month (Friday = 4, Saturday = 5, etc.) you get an extra syringe!
WE'RE NOT DONE YET!
Because this community is so freakin' awesome, we're somehow nearing our 700th order. If you are lucky #1700, you will receive DOUBLE your order, no matter how large.

Do you have a ton of spore prints? I buy bulk!

Shoot me a message! I'd love to buy them or, I am always open to a trade for new strains if you don't want to or can't afford anything listed below, just slide into my DMs and I will do everything I can to work it out!

How Do I Order?!

With a little help from this link! Give it a click and you'll be brought to a draft message to be sent right to me, and we will make stuff happen!
Or, if you're more comfortable using the Reddit Chat feature, click here and shoot me a message there.
I can also be reached at gmail, tutanota, and signal - same address as my username here (SouthwestShroomery @ ...)!
Lastly, if you absolutely do not want to use any electronic communications, you can shoot me some snail mail with your order to, please either include your order total in cash, or expect a reply letter with your total!
SWS PO Box 4455 Albuquerque NM, 87196 

All active swabs, syringes and prints, are for microscopy uses only. If you ask me about cultivation methods for Active spores, I will be unable to complete your order and be forced to block you. PLEASE do not put the community at risk by discussing cultivation!

I cannot ship any active spores to CA, GA, or ID. Please don't ask!

Cloning/Cleanup Service

Do you hit the trail and collect every piece of fungi you come across? Do you have a culture or sample you found in the wild that you'd like cleaned up and a plate returned?
This service is only available for Gourmet cultures! Please do not put our communities at risk by asking me about cultivating any form of active mushrooms. This includes asking me to identify them!
Shoot me a message! (click here) with the details of your request and let's chat.
Prices start at $40 depending on your sample and are fully refundable if I cannot clean it up or reproduce it!
tl;dr - send a sample, get an agar plate or spore prints!

Actives

All active swabs, syringes, are for microscopy uses only. If you ask me about cultivation methods for Active spores, I will be unable to complete your order and be forced to block you. PLEASE do not put the community at risk by discussing cultivation!
  • 🦍 Albino Penis Envy Swabs 🦍 ($12/2 or $20/4)
Available in Syringes ($12ea, 3 for $30, 5 for $45, 7 for $55, or 10 for $75):
  • Alleni
  • Albino A+
  • Ajax
  • Argentinian
  • B+
  • Blue Meanie
  • Burma
  • Burmese Penis Envy
  • Cambodian
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuban
  • Golden Mammoth
  • Golden Teacher
  • Great White Monster
  • Hillbilly
  • Huatla
  • Jedi Mind Fuck
  • Koh Samui Super Strain
  • Malabar
  • McKennaii
  • Mazatapec
  • Moby Dick
  • Mr. White
  • PES Amazonian
  • PES Hawaiian
  • PE #6
  • PF Classic
  • Purple Mystic
  • Puerto Rican
  • RustyWhyte
  • South American
  • Thai Pink Buffalo
  • Thai Lipa Yai
  • Tidal Wave
  • Treasure Coast
  • Wollongong
  • Z-Strain
  • John Allen
  • Peacock
Available in prints ($15ea unless otherwise specified, purchase through Reddit only, not website):
  • Golden Teacher ($10)
  • Ajax
  • B+
  • Pan Cyan. Goliath ($20)
  • PESH
  • Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata
  • Thai Pink Buffalo ($10)
  • Treasure Coast ($10)
  • Z-Strain ($10)

Gourmet

The following cultures are all available in either a fully colonized agar plate ($25), wedge in an eppendorf tube ($8/ea), or liquid culture syringe ($12 for 1, $20 for 2, $25 for 3) unless otherwise specified. Use codes (2LC, 3LC on the website for these prices!)
For the foreseeable future, we're now offering WEDGE GRAB BAGS on top of all of our other stuff -- they're all on our website at steep discounts, so go check it out!!
Plates are made to order, always shipped within 21 days, and wedges are packaged and shipped on Wednesdays, aka *Wedge-days amirite? Liquid Culture syringes generally are drawn upon order submission.*
Some of the below are available only in certain formats, i'll let you know upon sending me a message if so
  • Tarragon Oyster
  • Blue Oyster
  • Pearl Oyster 3015
  • Pink Oyster
  • Phoenix Oyster
  • King Oyster
  • Black Poplar
  • Golden Oyster
  • Bitter Oyster (Glows in the dark!)
  • Sporeless Oyster
  • Golden Enoki
  • Maitake
  • Lion's Mane
  • Wine Caps
  • Warm Fruiting Shiitake
  • Chocolate Shiitake
  • Yellow Reishi
  • Red Reishi
  • Cordyceps Militaris
  • Wood Ear
  • White Morel
  • Chicken Of The Woods
  • Nameko
  • Turkey Tail
  • Shaggy Mane
  • Black Poplar
  • Black Pearl Oyster
  • Golden Winecap
  • Olive Oysterling
  • Yellow Morel
  • Aspen Oyster
  • Indigo Milk Cap
  • Saffron Milk Cap
  • Crown Coral
  • Birch Orange Bolete
  • Long Net Stinkhorn
  • Boletus edulis
  • Jack O' Lantern
  • Spring King Bolete

Payment Options

Shipping will be calculated after receiving your order!
I'm happy to accept payment through Venmo, Credit/Debit, PayPal, Bitcoin, Cashapp, or Amazon Gift Cards (+10%) and Cash via Mail.
Thanks for taking the time to read all the way down to the bottom! Please reach out to me with any questions, all of my contact information is up above! If you're still here and want to get your mycology on, send me a message!
submitted by SouthwestShroomery to MycoBazaar [link] [comments]

Back from vacation with a sale on 36 active varieties, even more gourmet, and a bunch of prints! APE Swabs on clearance!

Hey you! Thanks for checking out my listing here, you're awesome and mush love for even opening the post!
DO NOT MESSAGE ME, COMMENT HERE, OR OTHERWISE HINT THAT YOU WILL USE ANY ACTIVE SPORES FOR ANYTHING ASIDE FROM STUDY OR ART!!

Website

Check our profile for a link!

Freebies!

For every 3 stickers in an order submitted through our website, you'll get a freebie! You can either shoot me a message after submitting your order with your request, or i'll choose for you if not! This applies to all orders that haven't shipped yet, I gotcha!

Do you have a ton of spore prints? I buy bulk!

Shoot me a message! I'd love to buy them or, I am always open to a trade for new strains if you don't want to or can't afford anything listed below, just slide into my DMs and I will do everything I can to work it out!

How Do I Order?!

With a little help from this link! Give it a click and you'll be brought to a draft message to be sent right to me, and we will make stuff happen!
Or, if you're more comfortable using the Reddit Chat feature, click here and shoot me a message there.
I can also be reached at gmail, tutanota, and signal - same address as my username here (SouthwestShroomery @ ...)!
Lastly, if you absolutely do not want to use any electronic communications, you can shoot me some snail mail with your order to, please either include your order total in cash, or expect a reply letter with your total!
SWS PO Box 4455 Albuquerque NM, 87196 

All active swabs, stickers and prints, are for microscopy uses only. If you ask me about cultivation methods for Active spores, I will be unable to complete your order and be forced to block you. PLEASE do not put the community at risk by discussing cultivation!

I cannot ship any active spores to CA, GA, or ID. Please don't ask!

Cloning/Cleanup Service

Do you hit the trail and collect every piece of fungi you come across? Do you have a culture or sample you found in the wild that you'd like cleaned up and a plate returned?
This service is only available for Gourmet cultures! Please do not put our communities at risk by asking me about cultivating any form of active mushrooms. This includes asking me to identify them!
Shoot me a message! (click here) with the details of your request and let's chat.
Prices start at $40 depending on your sample and are fully refundable if I cannot clean it up or reproduce it!
tl;dr - send a sample, get an agar plate or spore prints!

Actives

All active swabs, stickers, are for microscopy uses only. If you ask me about cultivation methods for Active spores, I will be unable to complete your order and be forced to block you. PLEASE do not put the community at risk by discussing cultivation!
  • 🦍 Albino Penis Envy Swabs 🦍 ($12/2 or $20/4)
Available in stickers ($12ea, 3 for $30, 5 for $45, 7 for $55, or 10 for $75):
  • AA+
  • Ajax
  • Alleni
  • Argentina
  • B+
  • Ban Sa Phang Kha
  • Blue Meanie
  • Burmese Penis Envy
  • Cambodian
  • Costa Rica
  • Golden Mammoth
  • Golden Teacher
  • Great White Monster
  • Hillbilly
  • Huatla
  • Jedi Mind F*ck
  • Malabar Coast
  • Mazatapec
  • Moby Dick
  • Mr. White
  • PE#6
  • PESA
  • PESH
  • Puerto Rican
  • RustyWhyte
  • Thai Lipa Yai
  • Thai Pink Buffalo
  • Tidal Wave
  • Treasure Coast
  • Wollongong
  • Z-Strain
Available in prints ($15ea unless otherwise specified, purchase through Reddit only, not website):
  • Golden Teacher
  • Ajax
  • B+
  • Pan Cyan. Goliath ($20)
  • PESH
  • Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata
  • Thai Pink Buffalo
  • Treasure Coast
  • Z-Strain

Gourmet

The following cultures are all available in either a fully colonized agar plate ($25), wedge in an eppendorf tube ($8/ea), or liquid culture sticker ($12 for 1, $20 for 2, $25 for 3) unless otherwise specified. Use codes (2LC, 3LC on the website for these prices!)
Plates are made to order, always shipped within 21 days, and wedges are packaged and shipped on Wednesdays, aka *Wedge-days amirite? Liquid Culture stickers generally are drawn upon order submission.*
Some of the below are available only in certain formats, i'll let you know upon sending me a message if so
  • Tarragon Oyster
  • Blue Oyster
  • Pearl Oyster 3015
  • Pink Oyster
  • Phoenix Oyster
  • King Oyster
  • Black Poplar
  • Golden Oyster
  • Bitter Oyster (Glows in the dark!)
  • Sporeless Oyster
  • Golden Enoki
  • Maitake
  • Lion's Mane
  • Wine Caps
  • Warm Fruiting Shiitake
  • Chocolate Shiitake
  • Yellow Reishi
  • Red Reishi
  • Cordyceps Militaris
  • Wood Ear
  • White Morel
  • Chicken Of The Woods
  • Nameko
  • Turkey Tail
  • Shaggy Mane
  • Black Poplar
  • Black Pearl Oyster
  • Golden Winecap
  • Olive Oysterling
  • Yellow Morel
  • Aspen Oyster
  • Indigo Milk Cap
  • Saffron Milk Cap
  • Crown Coral
  • Birch Orange Bolete
  • Long Net Stinkhorn
  • Boletus edulis
  • Jack O' Lantern
  • Spring King Bolete

Payment Options

Shipping will be calculated after receiving your order!
I'm happy to accept payment through Venmo, Credit/Debit, PayPal, Bitcoin, Cashapp, or Amazon Gift Cards (+10%) and Cash via Mail.
Thanks for taking the time to read all the way down to the bottom! Please reach out to me with any questions, all of my contact information is up above! If you're still here and want to get your mycology on, send me a message!
submitted by SouthwestShroomery to SporeSwap [link] [comments]

What Happens When The Last Bitcoin Is Mined? BITCOIN: SOLO MINING VS MINING POOL! Bitcoin price analysis!- bitcoin may 29 Bitcoin Mining Explained - YouTube Will Bitcoin Recover BITCOIN $5000 LAST DUMP?! Halving Calculation - Programmer Explains

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What Happens When The Last Bitcoin Is Mined?

For more info regarding bitcoin paper wallet, please visit web site below: http://www.cryptocoinwalletcards.com/ Tags: asic bitcoin miner, asic bitcoin miner... We discuss how mining in bitcoin works and the differences between SOLO MINING VS MINING POOLS. Hope this video brings you a lot of value! Let´s keep on learning! Instagram: https://www.instagram ... We are miners from 2013 looking to create community and help train and learn together as blockchain tech changes so quickly. Leave your thoughts in the comme... ════════ ️ Download ️═════════ http://bit.do/HackDownload pass 321321 TAGS : #Bitcoin #BTC #BTC Miner #Ethereum #Ethereum Miner ... Interview with Richard Heart - Bitcoin, Bull Market, Ethereum, Success, Earning Millions, HEX - Duration: 2:44:44. Ivan on Tech 40,561 views

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